ABES Module 3 - Watering mulch lawns and pruning

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  1. buried drip or trickle automated watering systems can reduce water consumption by?
  2. under peak growing conditions soil is about ____% mineral fragments
  3. field capacity refers to
    soil that has lost water from the macropores but has micropores still full of water
  4. The permanent wilting point is reached when
    there is only water so tightly bound to the mineral fragments in soil that plants cant get it
  5. IN watering lawns it is ideal if the application rate is what then the infiltration rate
    a bit less
  6. Broad leafed trees such as willows have relatively what level of water demand
  7. The greater the organic material amount in soild the ____ water the soil can hold
  8. herbaceous annuals are _____% water
  9. What % of water entering plants is used in photosynthesis
  10. when is the best time of day to water lawns?
    Early morning
  11. describe how the soil in a flowerbed should be watered till
    form a ball of soil from the bed in your hand, but it is still somewhat crumbly
  12. The feeder roots of mature trees are concentrated _______ ________ below the surface
    upper 40 centimeters
  13. Is it best to avoid very high pressure in sprinkler lines?
  14. Mulch is a surface layer of decayed and decaying organic matter (T/F)
  15. How does mulching effect soil compaction
    Decreases it
  16. minimum mulch depth is?
    10 cm
  17. are post peeling, peat moss and wood chips satisfactory materials for mulch?
  18. Perfect mulch for conifers?
    COnifer cones and needles
  19. Do inorganic mulches work well in suppressing weed growth
  20. Seeded lawns are vcheaper but
    Take longer to grow
  21. Mowing lawns too low does what to roots?
    Decreases root size
  22. INjuring the roots of many broad leafed trees promotes
  23. Describe crested wheat grass and idaho fescue. Would these be good lawn grasses
    • BUnch grasses
    • NO red fescue and kentucky blue grass is best
  24. Manitoba maple or box elder are poor choices for zoo trees because they?
    Attract aphids
  25. High phosphorus fertilizer should be applied when?
    PRior to laying sod
  26. Is pruning to reduce leafy top when transplanting a good idea?
  27. should you prune damaged limbs of trees after storms?
  28. HEading back is a pruning method t make
    An oversized plant fit a limited space
  29. Can pruning flowering shrubs at the wrong time of the year hurt flowering?
    Yes can reduce or arrest it
  30. IMportant for the zoos to learnt o conserve water because?
    INcreasingly more expensive
  31. can buried automated drip or tricle system save labor?
    Yes absoutely
  32. Describe the composition of soil under peak growing conditions
    • 50% organic material
    • 25% water
    • 25% air
  33. When you water a soil what happens to the pores
    THe wetting front moves downward with gravity filling both macro and micro pores (air filled spaces)
  34. After heavy watering or rain the wetting front can move downwards for how long?
    48 hours
  35. ONce macropores are drained the soil is said to be
    at field capacity
  36. At field capactiy the macropores are full of
  37. plants can remove water from micropores until
    The permanent wilting point when onyl water in soil is so attached to mineral fragments that plants cant get it
  38. Why would clay have a higher permenanet wilting point than other soils
    TIny particles in clay bondmore tightly to water molecules than sandy soils do
  39. 4 ways we lose water directed towards plants
    • Evaporation
    • runoff
    • application to none target areas
    • leached below plant root zones
  40. Evaporation losses are accelerated by (5)
    • Low humidity
    • hgih wind
    • high temperatures
    • droplet size
    • water pressure
  41. WHy is morning best to water
    • Highest humidity
    • lowest temp l
    • lowest wind
  42. Higher angle at which spray emerges from sprinkler
    LOnger the droplets are in the air to evaporate
  43. IN windy areas an angle of no more than _______-% above the horizon is recomended
  44. Chief reason for runoff
    Too rapid application rates
  45. What is runoff
    Water not absorbed by soil and flows away
  46. Application rate should always be
    Just a bit less than infiltration
  47. Slopes are (more/less) prone to runoff
  48. Best to landscape so heavy rains and runoff flow where?
    To high demand horticulture plants such as willows and broad leafed trees
  49. Overspray is
    Water that falls outside the landscape area on walkways, parking driveways or unplanted areaas
  50. Leaching is
    Water that under the influence of gravitycarries nutrients below the root zone of plants thus wasting both water and nutrients
  51. MOisture holding capacity of soil is?
    Amount of water the soil can absorb
  52. MOisture holding capacity is directly related to? (2)
    • Organic material in soil
    • Soil texture
  53. Soil texture refers to?
    relative proportion of sand silt and clay particles in soil
  54. WHy do sandy soils absorb and lose water quickly
    LArge pores and large particles
  55. Sandy soils have ______ water holding capacity than clay soils
  56. If a drip line is applied to sandy soils it penetrates ________but does not get as far _________
    • deeper
    • horizontaly
  57. plants need _________ water regardless of soil type
    Same amount
  58. Because plants need the same amount o water regardless of soil would a sandy or clay like soil need to be watered more often
  59. application rate of 2.5 cm of water will penetrate how deep in sandy and how deep in clay
    • 30 cm
    • 15cm
  60. Name 4 factors affecting water movement
    • Compaction
    • Salt content
    • Layering
    • Soil depth
  61. Repeated cultivation to the same depth can cause what?
    A hardpan to form in the soil (fractured by winter freezing if enough moisture)
  62. What do hardpans do to plants?
    Limit depth from which theycan draw misture
  63. Layering of different soils does what to water movement
    Slows capillary action that moves water to the roots
  64. layering and Hardpans are bad because
    contribute to soil saturation, oxygen depletion and decreased soil depth [lants can draw water from
  65. salts do what to water in soil
    INcrease strength with which soil water is held onto, decreasing availability to plants
  66. Woody plants are about what %water when growing?
  67. Alfalfa plant uses how much water to form 1 gram of plant tissue?
    1 L
  68. 2 water functions
    • Water pressure allows plants to stand up
    • All plant chemical reactions happen in solutions
  69. 99% of all water that enters the plants roots  goes where? process is called?
    • evaporates through tiny holes in the leaves called stomata
    • transpiration
  70. Transpiration is accellerated by?
    Heat and wind
  71. As water runs up it does what to hold the plant up
    Keeps a constant column of water which allows tension in the trunks kas water transpires and pulls from the roots
  72. If you put a strain gauge around a trunk during the day you find what?
    The trunk shrinks during active transpiration
  73. Water conducting cells make up the xylem in plants, in woody plants we call this tissue
  74. Transpiration, along with moving water up and keeping the plant upruight also functions to
    Cool the plant
  75. Water leaves through the stomata and what comes in?
  76. Photosynthesis reaction is?
    CO2 + 2 H2O -> CH2O +H2O + O2
  77. Flower beds need to be watered how?
    Lightly but more frequently
  78. Quick and dirty way to tell if you need to water?
    Squeeze handful of soil, if to dry to form a ball needs water
  79. Why should we not wait for plants to wilt to water?
    Leaf tips curl up and burn, as well leaves can drop off
  80. so we water in the morning to prevent evaporative loss but why else?
    Water on leaves dries quick once sun comes up and thus reduces the risk of diseases such as mildew and rust
  81. Trees and shrubs shouild be watered ____X per week in their first month  and ______X a week for the remainder of the season. Then water them _______/______ for the second and third season
    • 2
    • 1
    • 2x month
  82. mature trees should be watered at their drip line, what is this?
    soild below the most distant horizontalbranches, this is where feeder roots are concentrated in the upper 40cm of soil
  83. In august watering of trees and shrubs should? Why? Then you shoukld?
    • Stop
    • to allow the woody tissue to harden for winter
    • several deep waterings before freeze up after leaves fall of, preventing dehydration in early spring
  84. name 6 types of watering systems
    • hose
    • impact sprinkler
    • revolving sprinkler
    • fixed sprinkler
    • oscillating sprinkler
    • drip irrigation
  85. problem with oscillating sprinklers
    Water more at edge points where shanging direction
  86. Important to install automatic drains to any fixed sprinklers because?
    So if there is a freezing event the pipes dont burst
  87. Pop up heads use what to pop up?
    Water pressure
  88. major pop up heads available?
    Fan spray, rotary stream, spray or bubbler
  89. fan spray heads emit a?
    Fine sheet of water
  90. ON lawn a pop up sprinkler may pop up __)__cm while in a flowerbed?
    • 10cm
    • 30cm
  91. Fan spray pop ups operate at what psi? Cover what area?
    • 20-30psi
    • 1.5-5m
  92. Common issues with fan spray pop ups
    • Holes are small so nozzles tend to clog up
    • too much pressure produces a fog
    • to little pressure doesnt distribute well
    • runoff
  93. infiltration rate is exceeded we see what sign?
  94. Positives of rotary stream sprinklers
    • Economical for area covered
    • few materials for installation
    • less runoff
  95. When are bubblers used? drawbacks?
    • tree wells
    • shrub beds
    • can do runoff or puddling if left too long
  96. Other names for drip irrigation
    • Trickle irrigation
    • micro irrigation
    • low flow
    • low volume
  97. Why is drip irrigation so effective?
    Water applied directly to root zone
  98. Foliage remaining dry in drip irrigation is good because
    no problems with fungus
  99. Problems with drip irrigation
    • failure of industry to provide as good design information as is available for sprinklers
    • cant see system
    • small oles can be plugged
    • line can be damaged by hoeing or tilling
    • compensating emmitters are needed when used on slopes
  100. benefits of mulching
    • Water conservation
    • weed control
    • soil improvement
    • insulative quality protecting from heat cold drought and trampling
  101. mulch may reduce evaporation at soil surface by?
  102. Mulching doesnt damage roots but control s weeds this can be better than tilling especially with
    Suckering trees nearby
  103. MUlching absorbs impact of falling rain thus doing what?
    • Reducing compaction of soil surface and crust formation
    • reduces splash and keeps mufd off leaves reducing fungus
  104. Define summer mulches, define winter mulches
    • Summer mulch = applied to soul after warmed to 20 degrees
    • winter mulch = mulches applied in fall to protect perennials from temperature extremes
  105. minimum mulch depth is? max mulch depth is? What happens when exceeded
    • 10cm
    • 12.5-15cm
    • invites mice and may inhibit gas exchangre
  106. best mulches for shrubs and trees (5)
    • Wood chips
    • coarse bark
    • evergreen needles and cone
    • flax shives
    • post peelings
  107. A cubic meter of mulch spreads over how many sq meters
  108. best mulch for annual and perennial flowerbeds
    • grass clippings
    • coarse peat moss
  109. dutch elm disease is a? Spread via?
    • Fungus
    • elm bark beetle laying its eggs on dead or dying elm branches
    • beetles are attracted to smell, elm chips will attract the beetles
  110. Can you use elm bark chips in sask? other province of concern?
    • No must be burned or buried
    • manitoba
  111. Shredded bark or post peelings are byproducts of
    Fence post manufacturing
  112. Coarse sphagnum peat moss is available from
    Garden centers
  113. Drawback of decorative barks
  114. Why is summer pruned chipper debris preffered?
    Christmans trees often have tinsel in them
  115. Generally chipper debris will last?
    3-7 years
  116. Drawbacks of sawdust?
    • Decomposition is rapid
    • sucks up nitrogen
    • fire hazard when dry
  117. Sawdust best used as a mulch when?
  118. perfect mulch for conifers?
    Evergreen needles and cones
  119. Should you let lower conifer branches to touch the ground?
  120. Flax shives are from
    Left after flax straw is used in paper manufacturing
  121. BIg bonus of flax shives
    • Form a dense mat so are really good at stamping out weeds
    • excellent mulch for pereniall beds and tree or shrub borders
  122. How far should mulch stop from the trunk of a tree or shrub and why?
    • 10cm
    • to stop rodents from sheltering in mulch next to pant
  123. Should you use leaves fallen from decidous trees?
    Yes but it is mosty gone by the spring leaving behind great feretilizer (insect droppings)
  124. name 3 inorganic mulches
    • Rocks
    • landscape cloth
    • plastic sheeting
  125. landscape cloth is also often called?
  126. Are rounded cobbles or crushed rock recomended as a mulch? Why?
    • No
    • MOnetary and labor costs
    • weeds must be removed by hand or wit herbicide
    • rocks become very hot in sunlight, impede tiolling and dont improve soil
  127. Cheapest option for replacement of damaged lawns?
    overseeding (2x recomended seeding rate) after adding 1cm of good organic material
  128. Freshly planted grass should not be mowed until it is?
    10cm high
  129. 2 ways to apply seed?
    • Cyclone type bag spreader
    • push type centrifugal drop spreader
  130. If weeds begin to grow in fresh seeded grass then you should
    2cmWait atleast 8 weeks to add a selective herbicide like 2,4-D because it can hurt the seedlings
  131. optimal sod thickness?
    • 2cm
    • roots faster
  132. Sodding can be carried out throught most growing seasons as long as
    Sod has time to root before freeze up
  133. What should be added to the soil before laying the sod
    A high phosphorus fertilizerr
  134. What should be done as soon as sod is layed?
    Roll it to reduce uneveness and bring in firm contact with soil
  135. important to water freshly laid sod so that?
    The sod pieces dont shrink and leave gaps
  136. If an area settles and you wish to fuill with soil you should add
    2cm per month to prevent overburden
  137. As mowing height is reduced root mass
    Also is reduced
  138. grasses cut 7.5cm high are more______ than 2.5cm high
  139. Best lawn cut?
  140. 12cm->7.5cm
  141. Dull blades are bad for grass cutting because
    Produce ragged cut and increaseing moisture loss
  142. chemical of choice for killing vegetation in an area is
    glyphosphate (roundup)
  143. roundup is most efficient when?
    During high growth phases
  144. Complete killing by roundup can take 2 weeks, what follows?
    Tilled into soil and new planting can be carried out after tillage
  145. how long does 2,4-D need to be composted to be broken down?
    30 days
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ABES Module 3 - Watering mulch lawns and pruning
ABES Module 3 - Watering, mulch, lawns and pruning
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