Ortho and Rheum.txt

  1. what is the cause of most cases of osteomyelitis?
    staph aureus
  2. in patients with UTI or IVDU, which are most common organisms to cause osteomyelitis?
    • E.Coli
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Klebsiella
  3. in neonates,which are most common organisms to cause osteomyelitis?
    haemophilus influenza, group B strep
  4. in sickle cell, which are most common organisms to cause osteomyelitis?
  5. what is rheumatoid factor?
    IgM autoAb against the Fc portion of IgG
  6. what is the key event in the pathogenesis of RA?
    • pannus: inflamed, cellular synovial tissue which has proliferative properties, causes cartilage erosion
    • can infiltrate capsule, ligaments and other supportive structures leading to subluxation and deformities as well as erosion of the bone
  7. which type of systemic sclerosis do you get oesophageal involvement in? and which Ab?
    • limited (remember CREST)
    • anti-centromere
  8. What are the bone metastases in prostatic cancer like?
  9. what is impetigo? and treatment?
    • pyogenic infection of EPIDERMIS
    • usually S.aureus
    • Rx: flucloxacillin
  10. what is furunculosis?
    • infection of sebaceous gland caused by S.aureus
    • surgically drain abscess and give fluclox
  11. what is scalded skin syndrome?
    caused by exfoliating made by S.aureus
  12. what is erysipelas? and cause? spread? and Rx?
    • intradermal infection caused by strep progenies
    • indurated hot tender red lesion clearly DEMARCATED from normal skin
    • spreads rapidly via lYMPHATICS, n.b. blood cultures usually negative
    • regional lymphadenopathy
    • treated with iv benpen
  13. what is cellulitis?
    • infection of subcutaneous tissue
    • s.pyogenes or s.aureus
  14. what is gas gangrene? cause? Rx?
    • clostridium perferingens infection of subcut and muscle tissue
    • usually from war/field sports wounds
    • Rx: benpen / metronidazole and surgical debridement
  15. what is necrotising fasciitis?
    • rapidly spreading infection that causes necrotic liquefaction of subcut FAT
    • usually polymicrobial, skin and gut flora.
    • Rx: debride and broad spec abx
  16. out of CT and MRI, which is better for bone?
  17. out of CT and MRI, which is better for soft tissue?
  18. which part of the skeleton is most commonly affected by bony mets and which is rarely affected?
    • most common: skull
    • rare: tibia
  19. what happens if you get ulnar nerve lesion at the wrist and why?
    clawing of the hand due to action of unopposed long flexors
  20. which nerve is damaged in foot drop and which action is lost? where is the sensory loss?
    • common peroneal nerve
    • cannot dorsiflex the foot
    • sensory loss to dorsum of foot
  21. which spinal nerve roots is in sciatic nerve? what does it suppler? what are branches of sciatic nerve?
    • L4-S3
    • supplies: hamstrings
    • branches to give tibial and common peroneal nerve
  22. in De Quervain's tenosynovitis, which tendons are concerned?
    • extensor pollicis brevis
    • abductor pollicis longus
  23. in finklesteins test, where is the pain reproduced?
    below thumb
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Ortho and Rheum.txt