hort chapter 1

  1. Plants are composed of two major
    • Shoot system - above ground
    • root system - below ground
  2. important plant tissues - organize groups of large number of cells

    - skin
    - growing and dividing areas of cells
    - plumbing - allow material movemet
    • - epidermal tissue
    • - meristematic tissues
    • - vessels or vascular tissues
  3. composed of multiple tissues ie, leaves, stems, buds, roots
  4. "seed leaves"
  5. why differences between monocots and dicots can be important
    • predicting responses to herbicides or
    • for understanding growth patterns in relation
    • to pruning.
  6. monocots vs dicots

    number of flower parts
    • dicots - Four or five, or multiples
    • Monocots - Three, or multiples
  7. Differences between Monocots and Dicots.

    Seed leaves (cotyledons)
    • Dicots- two
    • Monocots - one
  8. Differences between Monocots and Dicots

    Leaf venation
    • Dicots - net- like
    • Monocots - parallel
  9. Differences between Monocots and Dicots

    Vascular system location
    in stems (cross section)
    • Dicots - in a single ring.
    • monocots - many bundles dispersed throughout
  10. Differences between Monocots and Dicots

    Some examples
    dicots -most ;broadleaf trees and shrubs, many herbaceous annuals and perennials

    monocots - Grasses, iris, lilies, orchids
  11. the factory of a plant. Its
    function is energy capture from sunlight via
    the process of photosynthesis
  12. flat part of leaf
  13. stalk of leaf
  14. leaf with single blade and petiole
    simple leaf
  15. leaf with more than one blade or petiole
    compound leaf
  16. leaf edge is called
  17. leaf that has a color on part of leaf that is different form the normal, usually green, color, leaves may have a crisp white edge, or there may be mottled blotches of white, yellow, maroon and green etc.
  18. the internal structure of a typical leaf is like peanut butter and jelly.
    outer "bread layer" _______
    thick peanut buter __________
    jelly _______
    • - epidermal tissue
    • - palisade parenchyma cells
    • - spongy mesophyll cells
  19. holes in epidermal layer of leaves?
    stomata - open and close control over movement of water vapor out of leaf and movemet of gases ( carbon dioxide and oxygen in or out of leaf.
  20. plants first line of defense against water loss when drought occurs
    closing stomata
  21. leaves are attached to a stem, usually by the __
  22. point of attachment between stem and petiole
  23. some stems that grow horizantlly along the ground or underground. 3
    • stolons
    • rhizomes
    • tubers
  24. some stems are significantly compressed. 2
    • rosette
    • crown
  25. first year stems are called
  26. node is
    point of leaf attachment
  27. at each node there is a bud on the stem  located in the area called
    leaf axil
  28. vascular tissue in stems are
    • xylem - water and nutrients from roots to leaves
    • phloem - pathway for movement of  materials produced by photosynthesis within plant
  29. there are 2 internal arrangements of vessels in stems. monocots vs dicots.
    • monocots - xylem and phloem tissues are dispersed
    • dicots - xylem, phloem, and cambium cells form a continuous single ring around a central pith which allows for secondary growth
  30. secondary growth
    stem growth in the form of annual increase in stem thickness, (tree trunk)
  31. function of bud
    - bud contains
    - around growing point contains what for protection
    • growing point or the location for the re commencement of growth.
    • - immature plant parts
    • - scales
  32. primary types of budes - 3
    • - vegetative , containing an immature stem and leaves
    • - floral, containing an immature flower
    • - bothe vegetative and floral in one
  33. buds normally occur in 2 locations
    • - at end of a shoot(stem) called a terminal bud
    • - at a node in a leaf axil - called a lateral or axillary bud
  34. functions of root 3
    • -anchoring plant to soil
    • - provide entry point for uptake of waterand minerals from soil
    • - provide a storage location for food reserves
  35. first root to grow from a seed
    primary root
  36. thick unbranched primary root which usually even on large trees extends not more than a fe feet into the ground (common in dicots)
    tap root
  37. types of roots 3
    • tap root
    • fibrous roots
    • fleshy root
  38. initially branch from a primary root forming a net like mass common in monocots and as secondary roots in dicots
    fibrous roots
  39. similar to a taproot only branched
    fleshy root
  40. protets the end of cell meristem region
    root cap
  41. mycorrhizai
    root-fungus association which increase further the area of soil that can be explored by root
  42. location of main part of root responsible for water and nutrient uptake. it is covered with fine root hairs that extend the reach of a root into the soil
    behind the meristem ( zone of cell division )
  43. new roots normally form as
    braches from existing roots
  44. roots that form on stems and leaves important in plant propagation as the permit rooting of stem and leaf cuttings
    adventitious roots
  45. function of flower
    sexual reproduction and development of seeds
  46. showiest part of plant
  47. typical flower parts and there function
    sepals - protect the developing flower, may be showy or not

    petals - attract pollinators, often showy

    stamens - male, location of pollen development and distribution

    pistil - female, location of ovule development and organ in which fertilized ovules develop into seeds
  48. flowers can occur complete with all four parts present (sepals, petals, stamens, pistil) or ____
    one or more of the parts missing
  49. perfect flower
    both sexual parts present
  50. imperfect flower
    one sexual part missing
  51. imperfect flowers occurring on one plant is called
  52. imperfect flowers male and female, that are found on two different plants
  53. holly plants are
  54. flowers born singly or in groups in various sorts of structures called ___________
  55. function of fruit
    protect developing seed and aid in seed dispersal
  56. botanically  a fruit is
    the mature ovary from a flower
  57. seed function
    to provide for next generation of species
  58. seeds are a ___ stage of plant development to allow species to survive periods of adverse environmental conditions
  59. seed germination
    stage in which embryo in a seed begins to grow
  60. seed is said to be _____when it will not grow
  61. stage of development defined by growth in a vegetative mode only, even if the plant is provided with favorable environmental conditions
  62. a  juvenile plant cannot
    produce flowers
  63. severe pruning can often cause a return to
  64. stage where plant is able to produce flowers
  65. stage where plant organ goes through organized prep process prior to death
  66. developmental stage where growth  slows or stops
  67. photosynthesis combines __ and ___ to from ___ and releases ____
    • water and carbon dioxide
    • sugar
    • oxygen
  68. respiration
    process where stored energy is released to do the work of growing
  69. respiration uses ___ while producing ___ and ___
    • oxygen
    • water
    • carbon dioxide
  70. movement of water thru a plant form soil to air
  71. activity within cells that includes all the chemistry of life
  72. cell division and expansion as th basis of plant growth takes place in a region of tissue called
  73. only function of meristematic cells is
    to multiply themselves
  74. 3 types of merisems
    terminal - apical meristem for shoot elongation

    secondary  - thickened growth of stem

    terminal - root growth
  75. meristem between xylem and phloem is
  76. meristem found at the base of blades of grass
  77. movement of material around in a plant, v
    translocation occurs in phloem
  78. a substance produced in on e part of a plant and translocated to another part of a plant
    plant horomone
  79. hormone that promotes cell division and elongation but depending on concentration, can inhibit the same activities.
  80. auxin promotes this process which is the ability of a shoot terminal meristem to suppress growth of axillary or lateral buds behind the shoot tip
    apical dominance
  81. hormone that promotes internode(the region of the stem between nodes) elongation
  82. hormone that controls and promote cell division and tend ot work against auxin in apical dominance. acts to promote youthfulness to counter aging process
  83. hormone causes growth cessation or dormancy in seeds and buds, the brake pedal on plant growth
    abscisic acid
  84. only plant hormone that is a gas promotes tissue aging such as ripening of fruit
  85. environmental factors influencing growth
    • light
    • temp
    • water
    • nutrients
    • gases
Card Set
hort chapter 1