Bio 209 Ch 23

  1. What are the major organs of the Respiratory System?
    • Nose
    • Pharynx (throat)
    • Larynx (voice)
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Lungs
  2. What are the components of the upper respiratory system?
    • Nose
    • Pharynx
  3. What are the components of the lower respiratory system?
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Lungs
  4. What is the function of the Conducting Zone?
    Filter, warm, moisten air and to conduct it to the lungs
  5. What organs are consisted in the conducting zone?
    • Nose
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Bronchioles
    • Terminal Bronchiols
  6. What is the function of the Respiratory Zone?
    Exchange O and Carbon Dioxide between air and blood
  7. What organs are consisted in the respiratory zone?
    • Respiratory Bronchioles
    • Alveolar Ducts
    • Alveolar Sacs
    • Alveoli
  8. What is the function of the External Nose?
    Provides framework of bone and cartilage
  9. What is the function of the Internal Nose?
    • Modify speech
    • Warm, moisten, filter air
    • Detect odors
  10. Describe the structure, location and function of the Pharynx
    • Structure: throat
    • Location: internal nares to inferior portion of larynx
    • Function: ?
  11. Where is the Nasopharynx, Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx located?
    • Nasopharynx: Superior portion of pharynx; Extends from internal nares to soft palate
    • Oropharynx: Soft palate to level of hyoid bone
    • Laryngopharynx: Level of hyoid bone to opening into larynx and opening into esophagus
  12. What is the function of the Uvula?
    Closes off nasopharynx to prevent food or liquid from going up the nose
  13. Describe the location, structure and function of the Larynx
    • Location: connects laryngopharynx with trachea
    • Structure: composed of Thyroid, Epiglottis, Cricoid, 2 Arytnoid, 2 Corniculate, 2 Curneiform (9 cartilages)
    • Function: passageway for air; produces voice
  14. How do vocal cords produce sounds?
    Sound is produced by the vibration of vocal cords when air passes through the larynx
  15. What is Pitch?
    The tension (taughtness) on vocal cords
  16. Where is the Trachea located?
    From larynx to level of T5 vertebrae; Anterior to espohagus
  17. What is the function of the Trachea?
    Passageway for air
  18. What are some structural changes along the bronchial tree?
    • Epithelium of mucus membrane: from ciliated to nonciliated-beating of cilia along bronchi, trachea, pharynx to be swallowed or spit out
    • Cartilage support: C shaped cartilage rings in bronchii disappears in terminal bronchioles
    • Implication: amount of smooth muscle increases as cartilage decreases
  19. Describe the location, structure and function of the lungs
    • Location: thoracic cavity
    • Structure: each lung surrounded by its own double-layered serous membrane (pleural membrane)
    • Function: ?
  20. Define Parietal Pleura
    Layer that lines the wall of the thoracic cavity
  21. Define Visceral Pleura
    Layer that covers the surface of the lungs
  22. What is Pleural Fluid?
    Fluid that decreases friction as lungs move during inhalation and exahalation
  23. What is Pleurisy (Pleuritis)?
    Inflammation of the pleural membrane
  24. What is a Pneumothorax?
    When the pleural cavity fills with air after surgical opening of chest or as a result of a gunshot or stab wound
  25. What is Atelectasis?
    Collapse of lungs
  26. Describe the structure of an Alveoli
    Spherical structures that are formed of simple squamous cells supported by a thin basement membrane
  27. What is the function of an Alveoli?
    Gas exchange and Secretes surfactant
  28. What are the two types of cells that make up the alveolus?
    • Type I: gas exchange
    • Type II: secretes surfactant
  29. What is the function of surfactant?
    To decrease surface tension in the lungs
  30. Describe the structure of the Respiratory Membrane
    • Type I & II alveolar cells
    • Epithelial basement membrane underlying alveolar walls
    • Capillary basement membrane
    • Endothelial cells of capillary
  31. What is the function of the Respiratory Membrane?
    Gas diffusion
  32. What is Ventilation Perfusion Coupling?
    Dilation of BV to increase blood flow due to hypoxia
  33. What is Pulmonary Ventilation?
    Flow of air into and out of lungs
  34. What is External Respiration?
    Exchange of gases between air of lungs and blood in pulmonary capillaries
  35. What is Internal Respiration
    Exchange of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells
  36. Describe the mechanisms of Inhalation
    • Pressure of lungs must equal to atmospheric pressure
    • Before air flows in, pressure in lungs must decrease
    • Contraction of diaphragm
  37. Describe the mechanisms of Exhalation
    • Pressure of air inside lungs must be higher than atmospheric pressure
    • Lung tissue recoils
    • Diaphragm relaxes and external intercostal muscles decreases thoracic volume
  38. What factors influence Pulmonary Ventilation?
    • Alveolar Surface Tension
    • Lung Compliance
    • Airway Resistance
  39. What is Eupnea?
    Normal, quiet breathing
  40. Describe Costal Breathing
    Shallow breathing due to contraction of external intercostal muscles - upward and outward movement of chest
  41. Describe Diaphragmatic Breathing
    Deep abdominal breathing due to contraction of diaphragm
  42. What volume measures ONE breath?
    Tidal Volume
  43. What volume measures the max amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation?
    Inspiratory Reserve
  44. What volume measures the amount of air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation?
    Expiratory Reserve
  45. What is a Residual Volume?
    Air that remains in the lungs after expiratory reserve
  46. What is 30% of tidal volume that remains in conducting zone and does not participate in gas exchange?
    Anatomic Dead Space
  47. What is Minute Ventilation?
    Total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute
  48. What is Alveolar Ventilation Rate?
    Volume of air per minute that reaches respiratory zone
  49. What does a Spirometer measure?
    Respiratory air volumes
  50. What does a Spirogram do?
    Record values measured by a spirometer
  51. How does gas volume affect gas pressure?
    According to Boyle's law, decreasing the volume [of the lungs] will increase lung pressure, and vice versa
  52. Define Partial Pressure
    Pressure of a specific gas in a mixture
  53. What is it called when
Card Set
Bio 209 Ch 23
Respiratory System