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What are the four commonly accepted principles of health care ethics?
- 1.) respect for autonomy
- 2.) nonmaleficence
- 3.) beneficence
- 4.) justice
What does respect for autonomy mean?
- informed consent
- means the patient has the capacity to act intentionally, with understanding, and with free will.
What does Nonmaleficence mean?
requires that we avoid needless harm or injury to the patient, whether by action or inaction.
What does Beneficence mean?
the actions of health care providers should benefit the patient. This duty extends from individual patients to our entire community.
What does Justice mean?
Justice in health care is usually defined as fairness. People who are equals should qualify for equal treatment, regardless of age, gender, educational background, and other factors.
What is informed consent?
the process by which patients are educated about the essentials of a medical procedure. This process allows them to make an informed, educated, and voluntary decision about the health care they are to receive.
What are the goals of informed consent? (6)
- most important- to give patients an opportunity to be knowledgeable about their healthcare decisions.
- 2.) the nature of the procedure
- 3.) reasonable alternatives
- 4.) the risks, benefits, and uncertainties related to each alternative.
- 5.) assessment of the patients understanding
- 6.) the patient's acceptance
What must there be for a patient's consent to be valid?
the patient must be considered competent to make the decision and the consent must be voluntary.
What are three cases were it is important to question a patient's ability to participate in decision making?
- 1.) if a patient is underage (under 18 years)- the patient's guardian must provide consent.
- 2.) If the patient is incapacitated or incapable of providing consent- the patient's guardian or surrogate decision maker must provide consent.
- 3.) If the patient does not speak English- need translator. Must sign a HIPAA release form.
What is a Revocation of Consent?
A patient may withdraw previously granted consent at any time. The sonographer must respect this decision and promptly bring the exam to a close.
What should a sonographer never do relating to patient findings?
never share any medical findings with the patient.
What are Ergonomics?
Studies the interaction between the sonographer, patient, and equipment in order to optimize the well being of sonographers in their professional environment.
What are some causes of injuries to sonographers? (4)
- 1.) repetitive motions
- 2.) forceful or awkward movements
- 3.) poor posture
- 4.) improper positioning, strain and pressure on joints for extended periods.
What are some adaptive ergonomic devices for sonographers? (5)
- 1.) wrist support braces
- 2.) adaptive support cushions
- 3.) ergonomic transducer design
- 4.) chairs with adjustable armrests and footrests
- 5.) most important- control panel and monitor adjustment to allow the sonographer to maintain the recommended wrist, neck, eye, and body positions.
What are some good body practices a sonographer should follow? (8)
- 1.) keeping arms close to the body
- 2.) positioning the system's monitor directly in front of you and at eye level.
- 3.) staying close to the patient.
- 4.) Minimizing the extent of twisting or bending over.
- 5.) Using proper sitting positions
- 6.) Holding the probe using a whole hand grip (palmar grip) rather than just the fingers (pinch grip).
- 7.) Keeping the wrist in a neutral position.
- 8.) Using proper foot support.
What are Standard Precautions?
are a set of guidelines to minimize the exposure and risk of health care workers when in contact with a patient.
What are some Standard Precaution guidelines? (5)
- 1.) Good hand hygiene- WASH HANDS
- 2.) gloves
- 3.) gowns
- 4.) eye wear
- 5.) face masks
What do standard precautions protect against? (6)
- 1.) all body fluids
- 2.) secretions and excretions
- 3.) mucous membranes
- 4.) airborne particles
- 5.) nonintact skin
- 6.) any items soiled with any of these substances.