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  1. Imaginary vertical plane from which all arm measurements are taken
    Datum line
  2. Horizontal distance in inches from the reference datum to the item
  3. Product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm
  4. Demonstrate weight and balance calculations
    Weighing everything in front of and behind the datum line (Weight of object times inches from datum line)
  5. Balance point of an aircraft
  6. Specified forward and aft points along the longitudinal axis within which the CG must be located during flight in order to keep the flight characteristics predictable
    CG limits
  7. Distance b/t the forward and aft CG limits
    CG range
  8. Total weight of the aircraft multiplied by the distance b/t the datum line and the location of the CG of the aircraft
    Total aircraft moment
  9. With more aft CG _______ downward force on the tail is required to maintain level cruising flight
  10. With a more forward CG, a ________ downward force on the tail is required to maintain level cruising flight
  11. Higher altitude = ___ air density
  12. Three main characteristics of air that directly affect aircraft performance
    • Air pressure
    • Temperature
    • Humidity
  13. Higher air pressure means _______ air molecules
  14. More molecules means a ________ air density
  15. Higher air density means _________ aircraft performance
  16. Measurement of heat energy
  17. What happens to molecules as heat energy increases?
    Move faster and collide more often
  18. The frequency of molecular collision increases which results in...
    More distance b/t them, which reduces air density
  19. There are _________ molecules per unit volume in warm air than in cool air
  20. Higher air temperature equals _______ air density
  21. Lower air density means
    Reduced aircraft performance
  22. Amount of water vapor in the air
  23. Humidity is ________ than air
  24. As humidity increases, air density _________
  25. Sea level barometric pressure
    29.92 in Hg
  26. Sea level temperature
    15 C or 59 F
  27. Relative humidity at standard atmosphere
  28. Standard temperature lapse rate of _______ per 1000 ft altitude
    2 degrees C
  29. Standard lapse rate of _______ per 1000 ft altitude
    1 in Hg
  30. Height above the standard datum plane
    Pressure altitude
  31. Pressure altitude corrected for variations in temperature
    Density altitude
  32. Air density increases with...
    • Air temp increase
    • Altitude increase
    • Humidity increase
    • Barometric pressure decrease
  33. Density altitude with lower air density
    • Engine develops less power
    • Propeller produces less thrust
    • Wings produce less lift
  34. Results of density altitude
    • Longer takeoff run
    • Poorer climb performance
    • Longer landing distance
  35. Speed of the airplane as observed on the airspeed indicator
  36. Speed of the plane in relation to the air mass in which it is flying
  37. Speed of the plane in relation to the ground
  38. Speeds that define certain performance and/or limiting characteristics of an aircraft
    V - Speeds
  39. Power off stalling speed at which the airplane is controllable in the landing configuration
  40. Power off stalling speed at which the airplane is controllable in a specified configuration
  41. Highest airspeed permissible with the wing flaps in a prescribed extended position
  42. Max airspeed for normal operation
  43. Never exceed airspeed
  44. Design maneuvering airspeed
  45. Speed that delivers the greatest gain of altitude in the shortest possible horizontal distance
    VX (Best angle of climb)
  46. VX ________ with altitude
    Increases (1/2 knot per 1000 ft)
  47. Speed that delivers the greatest gain in altitude in the shortest possible time
    VY (Best rate of climb)
  48. When VY is 0 ft/min
    Absolute ceiling
  49. When VY is 100 ft/min
    Service ceiling
  50. Difference b/t VX and VY
    • Y = time
    • X = horizontal distance
  51. Indicates minimum runway requirements necessary for successful takeoff
    Takeoff performance data
  52. Lift off speed
    52 knots
  53. Distance from beginning of runway to when tires touchdown
    Landing distance
  54. Distance from touchdown until plane comes to a stop by using the recommended braking technique
    Landing roll distance
  55. Zero reference above or below which other air is measured
    Standard Datum Plane
  56. The point at which two speeds meet
    Absolute ceiling
  57. Hourly weather report
  58. Provides amendments to hourly notices such as temporary flight restrictions
  59. The ___________ for overhead pattern entries is any point within the first 2000’ of the runway
    Break point
  60. Aircraft speed below 10,000' MSL
    ≤ 250 kts
  61. Within 4 NM of the primary airport in Class C or Class D airspace at or below 2500’ AGL
    ≤ 200 kts
  62. Below airspace underlying Class B airspace:
    ≤ 200 kts
  63. Minimum safe altitude in congested area
    • 1,000' above highest obstacle
    • 2,000' radius from any aircraft
  64. Minimum safe altitude in uncongested areas
    500' above the surface
  65. Density altitude limit
Card Set
Airplane Performance
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