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  1. Four forces acting on an airplane
    • Lift
    • Weight
    • Thrust
    • Drag
  2. Elements of an airfoil
    • Leading edge
    • Trailing edge
    • Upper camber
    • Lower camber
    • Chord line
    • Angle of attack
  3. Any surface such as a wing, rotor blade or propeller which produces an aerodynamic force when it passes through a stream of air
  4. Characteristic curve of the aerofoils upper and lower surfaces
  5. Describes a convex sruface
    Positive camber
  6. Describes a concave surface
    Negative camber
  7. Low speed wing generally have a _____ camber
    Large, positive
  8. High speed wings generally have a ______ camber
    Small, positive
  9. AOA
    Angle of chord line in relation to the relative wind
  10. Describe the relation b/t AOA, lift, and velocity
    Lift = V2 (AOA)
  11. Straight and level, unaccelerated flight; Maintaining altitude and constant speed
  12. Aerodynamic stall
    Exceeding the critical AOA
  13. What do you need to enter a spin
    Stall and Yaw
  14. Controlling lift
    • Aircraft design
    • Pilot - change angle of attack, airspeed, shape of wing
  15. 4 types of flaps
    • Plain
    • Split
    • Fowler
    • Slotted
  16. Rear portion or airfoil rotates downwards on a simple hinge mounted at the front of the flap
    Plain flap
  17. Rear portion of the lower surface of the airfoil hinges downwards from the leading edge of the flap, while the upper surface stays immobile
    Split flap
  18. Slides backwards flat, before hinging downwards, thereby increasing first chord, and then camber
    Fowler flap
  19. Gap between the flap and the wing forces high pressure air from below the wing over the flap helping the airflow remain attached to the flaps, increasing lift compared to a split flap
    Slottted flap
  20. The separation of airflow from the airfoil resulting in the loss of lift
  21. Explain stall recovery
    • Decrease angle of attack
    • Smoothly apply max power
    • Adjust power as needed
    • Recover to level flight
  22. Aggravated stall resulting in corkscrew path; One wing more stalled than the other
  23. Load factor ratio`
    Load supported by the wings to Actual weight of the aircraft and contents
  24. Load factor ________ as angle of bank increase
  25. Increasing lead factor will cause an airplane to...
    Stall at a higher speed
  26. Stalls that occur with G-forces being applied
    Accelerated stalls
  27. Maneuvering speed
  28. Force =
    Mass X acceleration
  29. Turning tendencies
    • Torque
    • Gyroscopic Precession
    • Asymmetrical thrust
    • Spiraling slipstream
  30. Example of torque
    Propeller rotates clockwise causing torque which tends to rotate the airplane counterclockwise about the longitudinal axis
  31. Gyroscopic precession
    Bike tire example
  32. Asymmetrical thrust (P-factor)
    More thrust on the right resulting in left yaw
  33. Spiraling slipstream
    Slipstream from propeller wraps around fuselage and hits left side of vertical fin (causes nose to yaw left)
  34. Any aircraft surface that interferes with the smooth flow of air around an airplane
    Parasite drag
  35. Three types of parasite drag
    • Interference drag
    • Form drag
    • Skin friction drag
  36. Produced by the shape of the object moving through the air
    Form drag
  37. Interaction of varied currents that flow over an airplane and mix together
    Interference drag
  38. Roughness of airplane surfaces
    Skin friction drag
  39. Drag created by the production of lift
    Induced drag
  40. Total drag =
    Parasite + Induced
  41. Distance aircraft will travel forward, without power, in relation to altitude loss
    Glide ratio
  42. Angle between glide path and horizon
    Glide angle
  43. Phenomenon of less induced drag close to the ground
    Ground effect (pocket of air)
  44. Causes and airplane to turn
    Horizontal component of lift
  45. Three axes of rotation
    • Longitudinal axis (ailerons)
    • Lateral axis (Elevators)
    • Vertical axis (rudder)
  46. Adverse yaw
    In a turn, outside wing produces more lift, causing yaw toward the outside of turn
  47. Airframe, engines, and all items of operating equipment that have fixed locations and are permanently installed in the aircraft
    Standard empty weight
  48. Weight of the pilot, passengers, baggage, usable fuel, and drainable fuel
    Useful load
  49. Total weight of loaded aircraft, includes all fuel
    Maximum ramp weight
  50. Maximum allowable weight for takeoff
    Maximum takeoff weight
  51. AVGAS weight
  52. Aviation Oil weight
  53. A point along the wing chord line where lift is considered to be concentrated.
    Center of Pressure (commonly called center of lift)
  54. Explain ground effect
    Interference of the surface of the earth with the airflow patterns about the aircraft in flight
  55. Occurs when both wings are stalled and there is a yawing moment due to uncoordinated flight.
  56. A center-seeking force directed inward toward the center of rotation
    Centripetal force
  57. How is centripetal force created?
    Horizontal component of lift in turning flight
  58. Explain centrifugal force
    Pulling G's (force that pushes you into your seat)
  59. Centrifugal force less that horizontal component of lift
    Slipping turn
  60. Centrifugal force more than horizontal lift
    Skidding turn
  61. Turning flight causes two additional forces to occur
    Adverse yaw and overbanking
  62. Stability
    Aircraft's ability to resist change
Card Set
Aerodynamic Principles
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