Physiology 1.1

  1. Broad sheet of tendon
  2. Composition of tendon
    Lots of Collagen Type 1 fibers, other collagens, some elastic fibers, some reticular fibers
  3. Energy storing tendons
    • Higher proportion of elastic tendons than positional tendons
    • Achillies tendon (calf muslces to calcaneus); acts as a "spring" for calf muscles
  4. How much ground substance in tendons?
    Minimal amount
  5. Tendon cell type
    Specialized fibroblasts/cytes called tendinocytes or tenocytes (tenocytes more common)
  6. Composition of tendons
    Collagen fibers, ground substance, tendon cells, fibrocartilage
  7. Fibrocartilage tends to be found
    Where the tendon attaches to a bone, or around a bony prominance when tendon rounds a corner
  8. Tendon fascicles surrounded by
    Thin membrane of loose connective tissue - called either endotendineum or peritendineum
  9. Tendon fibers tend to be bound into
  10. Within the peritendineum, we find
    Blood vessels and nerve fibers
  11. Are blood vessels found within the fascicles of a tendon?
    Nope, only in the connective tissue surrounding it
  12. Fibroblasts are found
    In the loose connective tissue surrounding the fascicle
  13. Cluster of fascicle is called
    A tendon
  14. Tendon is clusters of fascicles surrounded by
    Dense irregular connective tissue
  15. Epitendineum
    1 layer on outside of tendon
  16. Tendon sheath
    2 layers with fluid in between
  17. Ligaments
    Strap-like arrangement of dense regular connective tissue, much less complex than a tendon connecting one bone to another
  18. Cells that produce new connective tissue in the event of an injury or damage
  19. Repair process of tendons are slow due to
    Low blood supply (no blood supply within the tendon, only within the peritendineum)
  20. Repair process of ligaments is slower than tendons due to
    Even fewer blood vessels (no peritendineum, no smattering of vesselsl throughout), also no specialized cells (like fibroblasts) like tendons do
  21. Collagen fibers are in a "braided" formation in ligaments or tendons?
    Ligaments, tendons have more perpendicular fibers
  22. Ligaments or tendons more stretchy?
    Ligaments, especially between vertebrae - due to more elastic fibers (also more reticular fibers, less collagen)
  23. Ligaments or tendons have Sharpey's fibers?
    Both! Perforating fibers that penetrate the outer layer of bone tissue
  24. Function of a ligament
    • Hold bones together (two separate bones, sometimes 2 portions of the same bone)
    • Limits movement of joints
  25. Retinaculum
    Broad strap of connective tissue that holds underlying muscle tissues underneith
  26. Ground substance of cartilage is
  27. Specialized cells in cartilage tissue
    • Chondroblasts¬†
    • Chondrocytes
  28. Specialized cartilage cells that tend to be more superficial
  29. Specialized cartilage cells that tend to be deep/inferior
  30. Small space within the inferior space of cartilage that houses chondrocytes
  31. Periochondrium
    On the outside layer of cartilage - dense connective tissue consisting of mainly Type 1 collagen fibers
  32. Within the matrix of cartilage, how many blood vessels?
    None at all
  33. The only type of connective tissue that has no blood supply at all
  34. Why aren't there blood vessels in the cartilage?
    Cartilage tends to be under compresive force.With the semi-rigid ground matter, it would break blood vessels when compression occured
  35. Perichondrium contains
    • Blood vessels
    • Nerves
    • Lymphatic vessels
  36. Most prevalent type of cartilage within the body
    Hyaline cartilage
  37. Costocartilage is made of what kind of catilage
    Hyaline cartilage
  38. Articular cartilage of a joint is what kind of cartilage
    Hyaline cartilage
  39. Cartilage in the trachea is what kind of cartilage
    Hyaline cartilage
  40. Larynx is mostly made of what type of cartilage
    Hyaline cartilage
  41. Cartilages of the nose are what type of cartilage?
    Hyaline cartilage
  42. A lot of bones start out in a block of cartilage. What type of cartilage is it?
    Hyaline cartilage
  43. Epiphiseal (growth) plates are made of what type of cartilage?
  44. Most rigid type of cartilage
    Hyaline cartilage
  45. All 3 types of cartilage are rigid due to
    Really high concentration of fibers
  46. Hyaline has a high concentration of what type of fibers?
    Type II collagen with a smattering of Type IX (binding) and Type VI collagen (none of which is visible under light microscope)
  47. Ground substance of hyaline cartilage is mostly
    Water (75%), bound to GAG's, which in turn are bound to proteoglycans
  48. Types of GAGs found in the ground substance of hyaline cartilage
    Chondroiten sulfate, with a small amount of karatan sulfate
  49. Helps bind proteoglycans to Type II cartilage in hyaline cartilage
  50. Form hyaline cartilage is typically found in
    Block form, covered with perichondrium
  51. A covering layer of dense connective tissue over hyaline cartilage
  52. Two exceptions to perichondrium covering of hyaline cartilage
    • Articular cartilage (on joint surfaces of bones, especially long bones)
    • Epiphysial (growth) plates
  53. Blood supply to hyaline cartilage is provided by
    A layer of blood vessels between the perichondrium and cartilage
  54. Type of cartilage found in the ear
    Elastic cartilage
  55. Type of fiber that composes most of elastic cartilage
    Elastin fibers
  56. Type of cartilage found in the epiglottis, part of larynx
    Elastic cartilage
  57. Type of cartilage that forms the pharyngotympanic tube
    Elastic tube
  58. Ground substance of elastic cartilage is very similar tothe ground substance of
    Hyaline cartilage
  59. Main difference of ground substance between hyaline and elastic cartilage
    Elastin fibers instead of type II collagen fibers
  60. Elastic cartilage is covered in
    Perichondrium (always)
  61. Pubic symphisis is a sight for what type of cartilage?
  62. Intervertebral discs are mostly what type of cartilage
  63. Meniscus of the knees are made of what type of cartilage?
  64. Consisancy of fibrocartilage
    Foam rubber
  65. Least rigid type of cartilage
    Fibrocartilage (highly malleable)
  66. The type of cartilage you find in tensile strength-type situations
  67. Ground substance of fibrocartilage is similar to
    Both elastic and hyaline cartilage
  68. Ground substance of fibrocartilage is composed of
    The same things hyaline cartilage is composed of, just less dense
  69. Fibrocartilage is malleable because of
    The types of fibers found in it
  70. If you took dense connective tissue and made the fibers more dense, you would end up with
  71. Type of fiber most predominant in the ECM of fibrocartilage
    Type I collagen fibers
  72. Perichondrium is not found surrounding what type of cartilage?
  73. During early fetal development, chondroblasts starts to manufacture
    Cartilage matrix (ground substance, fibers, etc)
  74. Interstitial growth is associated with
Card Set
Physiology 1.1
Physiology 1.1