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  1. Gland for releasing and inhibiting factors
  2. Target/effect of releasing and inhibiting factors
    anterior pituitary/modify activity
  3. Gland for growth hormone
    anterior pituitary
  4. Target/effect of growth hormone
    increase bone and muscle growth, increase cell turnover rate
  5. Gland for prolactic
    anterior pituitary
  6. Target/effect of prolactin
    mammary gland/milk production
  7. Gland for thyroid stimulating horming
    Anterior pituitary - tropic
  8. Target/effect of thyroid stimulating hormone
    thyroid/ increase synthesis and release of TH
  9. Gland for adrenocorticotropic hormone
    Anterior pituitary
  10. Target/effect of ACTH
    increase growth and secretory activity of adrenal ctx
  11. Gland for luteinizing hormone
    Anterior pituitary - gonadotropic
  12. Target/effect of luteinizing hormone
    overy/ovulation, testes/testosterone synthesis
  13. Gland for follicle stimulating hormone
    Anterior pituitary
  14. Target/effect of FSH
    overy/follicle development, testes/spermatogenesis
  15. Gland for antidiuretic hormone
    Posterior pituitary
  16. Target/effect of ADH
    kidney/water retention
  17. Gland for oxytocin
    posterior pituitary
  18. Target/effect of oxytocin
    breast/milk letdown, uterus/contraction
  19. Gland for thyroid hormone
  20. Target/effect of thyroid hormone
    child: necessary for physical and mental development; adult: increase metabolic rate and temperature
  21. Gland for calcitonin
    Thyroid C cells
  22. Target/effect of calcitonin
    bone, kidney; lowers serum [Ca 2+]
  23. Gland for parathyroid hormone
  24. Target/effect of parathyroid hormone
    bone,kidney,small intestine/raises serum [Ca 2+]
  25. Gland for thymosin
  26. Target/effect of thymosin
    T cell development during childhood
  27. Gland for epinephrine
    Adrenal medulla
  28. Target/effect of epinephrine
    sympathetic stress response (rapid)
  29. Gland for cortisol ("glucocorticoid")
    Adrenal Cortex
  30. Target/effect of cortisol
    longer-term stress response; increase blood glucose; increase protein catabolism, decrease inflammation and immunity
  31. Gland for aldosterone ("mineralocorticoid")
    Adrenal cortex
  32. Target/effect of aldosterone
    kidney/increase sodium reabsorption to increase blood pressure
  33. Gland for sex steroids
    Adrenal cortex
  34. Target/effect of sex steroids
    not normally important, but an adrenal tumor can overproduce these, causing masculinization or feminization
  35. Gland for insulin
    Endocrine pancreas - Beta cells
  36. Target/effect of insulin
    decrease blood glucose; increase glycogen and fat storage
  37. Gland for glucagon
    Endocrine pancrease (Islets of Langerhans) - alpha cells
  38. Target/effect of glucagon
    increase blood glucose; decrease glycogen and fat storage
  39. Gland for somatostatin
    Endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
  40. Target/effect of somatostatin
    inhibits many digestive processes
  41. Gland for testosterone
  42. Target/effect of testosterone
    male characteristics, spermatogenesis
  43. Gland for estrogen
  44. Target/effect of estrogen
    female characteristics, endometrial growth
  45. Gland for progesterone
  46. Target/effect of progesterone
    endometrial secretion, pregnancy
  47. Gland for atrial natriuretic factor
  48. Target/effect of atrial natriuretic factor
    kidney/increase urination to decrease blood pressure
  49. Gland for erythropoietin
  50. Target/effect of erythropoietin
    bone marrow/increase red blood cell synthesis
  51. Prefix for organic chain with 1 carbon
  52. Prefix for organic chain with 2 carbons
  53. Prefix for organic chain with 3 carbons
  54. Prefix for organic chain with 4 carbons
  55. Prefix for organic chain with 5 carbons
  56. constitutional isomers
    different connectivity
  57. conformational isomers
    different rotation around sigma bond
  58. stereoisomer
    same connectivity but different spatial arrangement
  59. Preferred orientation for bulky groups (equitorial vs axial)
  60. Chiral molecule
    any molecule that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image
  61. Number of possible stereoisomers for chiral molecule
    2^#of chiral centers
  62. Enantiomer
    Non-superimposable mirror images
  63. diastereomers
    stereoisomers that are non-superimposable, non-mirror images
  64. epimers
    subclass of diastereomers that differ in the absolute configuration as a single chiral center
  65. anomers
    epimers that result from ring closure
  66. meso-compound
    a molecule that contains chiral centers with an internal plan of symmetry
  67. geometric isomers
    diastereomers that differ in orientation of substituents around a ring or a double bond
  68. Stability of free radicals
    tertiary > secondary > primary > methyl
  69. nucleophile (lewis acid or lewis base)
    lewis base
  70. electrophile (lewis acid or lewis base)
    lewis acid
  71. EDG as a aromatic director
    ortho-, para-
  72. EWG as an aromatic director
  73. How does an EWG effect the acidity of a carboxylic acid?
    EWG increase the acidity due to inductive effects
  74. Which compound has a higher Rf value for a TLC (polar or nonpolar)?
  75. IR stretch for carbonyls
    1700 cm-1
  76. IR stretch of c=c
    1650 cm-1
  77. IR stretch of triple bond
    2260-2100 cm-1
  78. IR stretch of OH
    3600-3200 cm-1
  79. IR stretch of sp3 C-H
  80. IR stretch of sp2 C-H
  81. IR stretch of sp C-H
  82. NMR peak for an aromatic ring
    6-8 ppm
  83. Configuration of animal amino acids
  84. configuration of all naturally occurring carbohydrates
  85. physiological pH
  86. pKa of amino group on amino acid
  87. pKa of carboxyl group on amino acid
  88. 8 essential amino acids
    Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, Methionine, Threonine, Lysine
  89. Linkages of sucrose
  90. linkages of lactose
  91. linkages of maltose
  92. linkages of cellobiose
  93. where are receptors or steroid hormone found?
    within the cell
  94. where are the hormone for peptide hormone found?
    on the cell surface
  95. molarity (M) =
    moles of solute / liter of solution
  96. First quantum number
    shell number, n
  97. Second quantum number
    • subshell number, l
    • (l=0:s, l=1:p, l=2:d, l=3:f)
  98. Third quantum number
    • orbital number, m
    • m=-l,-(l-1),...,0,..(l-1),l
  99. Fourth quantum number
    spin number, 1/2 or -1/2
  100. Trending for atomic radius
    • decreases left to right
    • increases going down
  101. Trending of ionization energy
    • decreases left to right
    • increases going down
  102. Trending of electron affinity
    • more negative going left to right
    • more negative going up
  103. Trending of electronegativity
    • increases going left to right
    • decreases going down
  104. Trending of acidity
    • increases going left to right
    • increases going down
  105. Common strong acids (6)
    HI, HBr, HCl, HClO4, H2SO4, HNO3
  106. Common strong bases
    Group I hydroxides(NaOH), Group I oxides(Li2O), metal amides
  107. Reaction spontaneity with ΔG<0
    spontaneous in forward direction
  108. Reaction spontaneity with ΔG=0
    reaction at equilibrium
  109. Reaction spontaneity with ΔG>0
    nonspontaneous in forward direction
  110. Transcription
    DNA to RNA
  111. Translation
    RNA to proteins
  112. Output of glycolysis per glucose
    2 ATP and 2 NADH
  113. Output of pyruvate dehydrogenase per glucose
    2 NADH
  114. Output of Kreb's cycle per glucose
    6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 GTP
  115. Color of gram positive bacteria
  116. color of gram negative bacteria
  117. Location of PCD and Krebs cycle
    matrix of mitochondria
  118. Characteristics of glycine
    nonpolar, hydrophobic
  119. characteristic of alanine
    nonpolar, hydrophobic
  120. characteristic of valine
    nonpolar, hydrophobic
  121. characteristics of methionine
    nonpolar, hydrophobic
  122. characteristics of leucine
    nonpolar, hydrophobic
  123. characteristics of isoleucine
    nonpolar, hydrophobic
  124. characteristics of proline
    nonpolar, hydrophobic
  125. characteristics of phenylalanine
    nonpolar, hydrophobic
  126. characteristics of tryptophan
    nonpolar, hydrophobic
  127. characteristics of serine
    polar, neutral
  128. characteristics of threonine
    polar, neutral
  129. characteristics of asparagine
    polar, neutral
  130. characteristics of glutamine
    polar, neutral
  131. characteristics of cysteine
    polar, neutral
  132. characteristics of tyrosine
    polar, neutral
  133. characteristics of aspartic acid
    polar, acidic
  134. characteristics of glutamic acid
    polar, acidic
  135. characteristics of histidine
    polar, basic
  136. characteristics of arginine
    polar, basic
  137. characteristics of lysine
    polar, basic
  138. function or nucleus
    contain and protect DNA, transcription, and partial assembly of ribosomes
  139. function of mitochondria
    Produce ATP view Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
  140. function of ribosomes
    synthesize proteins
  141. function of RER
    location of synthesis/modification of secretory, membrane-bound and organelle proteins. Directs protein traffic
  142. function of SER
    detoxification and glycogen breakdown in liver; steroid synthesis in gonads
  143. function of golgi
    modification and sorting of protein, some synthesis (oligosaccharide chains)
  144. function of lysosomes
    contain acid hydrolases which digest various substances
  145. function of peroxisomes
    metabolize lipids and toxins using H2O2
  146. Where does all translation take place?
    in the cytoplasm
  147. 3 components that make up cytoskeleton
    microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments
  148. incomplete dominance
    blending of characteristics
  149. codominance
    NOT blending of characteristics
  150. pleiotropism
    gene alterations results in seemingly unrelated differences
  151. polygenism
    complex trait influenced by many genes
  152. penetrance
    likelihood that a person with a given genotype will express the expected phenotype
  153. epistasis
    alleles of one gene is dependent on a different gene
  154. nondisjunction
    failure of chromosomes to separate correctly during meiosis
  155. autosomal dominant inheritance pattern
    single copy of allele will confer the phenotype
  156. autosomal recessive inheritance pattern
    2 copies required to show phenotype
  157. mitochondrial inheritance pattern
    come only from mother
  158. hemizygosity inheritance pattern
    the individual only has one copy of the chromosome in a diploid organism
  159. sex-linked inheritance pattern
    traits determined by genes on X or Y chromosomes
  160. Criteria for Hardy-Weinberg
    • no mutation
    • no migration
    • no natural selection
    • random mating
    • population is large to prevent random drift
  161. 2 sources of genetic variation
    new alleles and new combinations of existing alleles
  162. 2 forms of reproductive isolation
    prezygotic and postzygotic
  163. Number of ions exchanges by sodium/potassium pumps
    3 sodium ions out and 2 potassium ions in
  164. resting potential
    -70 mV
  165. threshold potential
    -50 mV
  166. Where do somatic nerves attach to spinal cord
    leave ventral
  167. where do sensory nerves attach to spinal cord
    enter dorsal
  168. an endocrine gland
    ductless gland
  169. an exocrine gland
    have ducts
  170. structure of peptides
    hydrophilic, large or small
  171. site of synthesis of peptides
    rough ER
  172. regulation of release of peptides
    stored in vesicles until a signal for secretion is received
  173. transport in bloodstream of peptides
  174. specificity of peptides
    only target cells have appropriate surface receptors
  175. mechanism of effect of peptides
    bind to receptors that generate second messengers which result in modification of enzyme activity
  176. timing of effect of peptides
    rapid, short-lived
  177. structure of steroids
    hydrophobic, small
  178. site of synthesis of steroids
    smooth ER
  179. regulation of release of steroids
    synthesized only when needed and then use immediately
  180. transport in bloodstream of steroids
    stuck to protein carrier
  181. specificity of steroids
    only target cells that have appropriate cytoplasmic receptors
  182. mechanism of effect of steroids
    bind to receptors that alter gene expression by regulating DNA transcription
  183. timing of effect of steroids
    slow, long lasting
  184. tropic hormones
    hormones that regulate other hormones
  185. endocrine control center
    hypothalamic-pituitary control axis
  186. a portal system
    have 2 capillary beds in sequence
  187. define syncytium
    a tissue in which the cytoplasm of different cells can communicate via gap junctions
  188. adrenergic tone
    constant nervous input on contraction of aterial system
  189. what compound is essential for maintenance of oncotic pressure
  190. role of macrophages
    phagocytose debris and microorganisms; amoebid motility; chemotaxis
  191. role of B cell lymphocytes
    mature into plasma cell and produce antibodies
  192. role of T cell lymphocytes
    kill virus-infected cells, tumor-cells, reject tissue graft; control immune response
  193. role of neutrophil
    phagocytose bacteria resulting in pus; amoebid motility; chemotaxis
  194. role of eosinophil
    destroy parasites; allergic reactions
  195. roles of basophil
    store and release hystamine; allergic reactions
  196. 2 types of hormones used by T helpers
    lymphokines and interleukins
  197. components of nephron
    capsule + renal tubule
  198. body's pH is regulated by what?
    carbonic anhydrase
  199. where is erythropoietin made?
  200. epithelial cells in digestive system that secrete acid and pepsinogen
    gastric cells
  201. mucus secreting cells in digestive system
    goblet cells
  202. cells of digestive system that secrete pepsin
    chief cells
  203. 2 ducts that empty into duodenum
    pancreatic and common bile ducts
  204. where does B12 absorption occur
    in ileum
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