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  1. When are polyphasic potentials produced?
    Contracted muscles undergoing reorganization
  2. When are fibrillation potentials seen?
    In relaxed denervated muscles
  3. When are resistive exercises contraindicated?
    • Platelets below 20,000
    • Significant metastases
    • Osteoporosis
  4. 2ndary lymphedima vs primary
    • Primary: genetic:
    • Secondary: trauma
  5. What is hypoplasia?
    Underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or an organ.
  6. After open heart surgery what are exercise prescriptions?
    • Avoid: Mod to heavy resistance for 3 months, wait for sternum to heal
    • Pts with sternal movement or wound infection should perform LE resistance only
    • Once cleared: UE 30-40%; LE 50-60%
  7. What is primary effect of Albuterol?
    • Reduces airway resistance by reducing bronchospasm
    • Also INC BP & tachycardia
  8. What does water immersion do to heart?
    Induce bradycardia
  9. Backward trunk lean walking is due to what?
    • Glute max weakness. It is called glut max walk
    • {t has trouble going up stairs
    • PT: bridging
  10. Cataracts and vision
    • Vision is lost slowly over time
    • Cause cloudiness of lens
    • Central vision lost 1st, peripheral after
  11. Glaucoma & vision
    Peripheral vision goes first, then central, than blindness
  12. For shoulder subluxation after stroke:
  13. What is hemiballismus?
    • Sudden, jerky, forceful and flailing involuntary movements on one side of body
    • "hemi" is the clue here
  14. What is intention tremor?
    Involuntary oscillatory movement that occur during voluntary movement
  15. What else can be damaged in anterior-inferior GH dislocation?
    Axillary nerve, so weak deltoids
  16. RTC: randomized control trial uses what?
    Randomization process to assign subjects to groups
  17. What is A-B-A-B design?
    • Alternating experimental and control conditions for a subject
    • Used in single subject design
  18. What is cohort design?
    Investigates a group of subjects without a control group
  19. Pt with LEFT hemiplegia shows what deficits?
    • Visuospatial perceptual
    • DO NOT USE gestures and demonstration
    • USE verbal cues
  20. Infants and O2 desaturation:
    Excessive handling of premature infant causes O2 desaturation
  21. Unhappy triad and subacute phase:
    Closed-chain exercises are emphasized: terminal extension must be achieved in this stage
  22. What is dependent variable?
    Change or difference in behavior that results from intervention
  23. What is control variable?
  24. What is independent variable?
  25. Dyssynergia & timing deficits: LMN or UMN?
  26. Muscle spasms & (+) Babinski: LMN or UMN?
  27. HYPERthyroidism & exercise:
    • It is a hyper metabolic state& associated with exercise intolerance & impaired cardiopulmonary function.
    • HR INC
    • Muscle weakness (proximal)
    • Fatigue
    • Tachycardia
  28. Inteferential current & electrodes:
    4 electrodes criss-crossed
  29. Gait changes & PD:
    Loss of arm swing, reciprocal trunk movements, shuffling gait & festinating gait
  30. What is festinating gait?
    Abnormal & involuntary increase in SPEED of walking in an attempt to catch up with a displaced COG due to pt's forward lean
  31. Diuretics & side effects:
    • USED FOR: hypertension
    • SIDE EFFECTS: orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, drowsiness, lethargy & weakness
    • CAN OCCUR: hyPOkalemia, INC PVCs, muscle cramps
  32. What is test for hemionapsia?
    Visual confrontation test with a moving finger
  33. What is used to test ocular pursuit?
    Pen moved in H pattern to the extremes of gaze
  34. What is used to test convergence?
    Penlight and ruler, pt keeps penlight in focus as it moves inward from a distance of 4-6 in
  35. What is used to test distance acuity?
    Snellen eye chart at distance of 20 feet
  36. CT scan for what?
    Best for spinal fractures & cortical bones
  37. Cerebella disfunction & movements:
    • Dyssenergia, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia
    • Movement composition is velocity dependent: higher speeds lead to more disfunction
  38. Rhomboids & scapula:
    • Downward rotation
    • ADD
    • Elevation
  39. Serratus anterior & scapula:
    • Upward rotator
    • ABD
  40. Recurvatum & therex:
    Eccentric quad control (closed-chain)
  41. To reduce lumbar disc pressure:
    • Lean back rest 90-110 degrees
    • Add armrest
    • Add lumbar support
  42. COPD & chest:
    • Barrel
    • Kyphosis
    • DEC in excursion
  43. Lyrica used to treat what & with what side effects?
    • Diabetic neuropathy
    • Side effects: lymphedema, heart failure, difficulty with walking long distances
  44. Diff bet empty can & drop arm tests?
    • Empty can: for supraspinatus specifically & rotator cuff
    • Drop arm: rotator cuff
  45. ST segment depression greater than 1 means what?
    • Ischemia
    • STOP exercises with cardiac its
  46. For colic do what?
    Neutral warmth: wrapping or bundling
  47. What is Brown-Sequard & presentation?
    • Hemisection of spinal cord
    • Ipsilateral: weakness, loss of position & vibration sense
    • Contralateral: loss of pain & temp
  48. Central cord syndrome:
    • LOSS: UE function
    • HAVE: LE function
  49. Sacral sparing:
    • LOSS: sparing of tracts to sacral segment
    • HAVE: perianal sensation, toe flexion
  50. Anterior cord syndrome:
    • LOSS: motor function, pain, temp
    • HAVE: light touch, position sense
  51. What is stork test for?
  52. PTB prosthesis:
    • Socket aligned in slight flexion to enhance loading of patella tendon, prevent genu recurvatum
    • If aligned too far anteriorly: excessive knee flexion in early stance
  53. Hypothyroidism & skin:
    • Cool
    • Dry
  54. Phalen's test:
    Median nerve compression in carpal tunnel
  55. Froment's sign:
    Ulnar nerve dysfunction
  56. Finkelstein's test:
    de Quervain's syndrome (ABPL & ABPB)
  57. Craig's test:
    Femoral antetorsion
  58. I:E ratio:
    INC: obstructive disease
  59. Genu recurvatum & posture:
    • Ankle PF
    • Anterior pelvic tilt (to maintain COG over feet)
  60. Ankle DF & knee: Increased DF may lead to:
    INC knee flexion
  61. Forefoot varus may lead to what in knee?
    Tibial IR, NOT genu recurvatum
  62. L4 nerve root compression:
    Weakness in quad femoris
  63. L5 nerve root compression leads to weakness in:
  64. What does psoriasis look like?
    Red patches covered by dry silvery scales
  65. 3 PVCs in a row is what?
    • Ventricular tachycardia - EMERGENCY
    • Can deteriorate rapidly into ventricular fibrillation: no CO & cardiac arrest
  66. Nitrogliceryde & falls:
    Leads to dizziness or weakness due to postural hypotension
  67. Pes planus & pain
    Flat feet that accompany plantar fasciitis
  68. Low lumbar lesions L4-5 & ambulation
    Can be independent  with bilateral AFOs and canes
  69. T6-9, T12-L1, T9-10 and ambulation
    Can learn to ambulate with KAFOs and crutches, but prefer WC due to exertion
  70. UMN lesions are also what?
    • Cortical or pyramidal tracts
    • LMN: peripheral
  71. Lumbar quadrant test looks for what?
    Lumbar facet dysfunction
  72. Wheezes/crackles in lung area mean what and how to position for ventilation?
    • Low ventilation
    • If u place pt on to that area it would inc blood flow but there is no ventilation, would worsen ventilation/perfusion ratio
  73. What is ANOVA?
    Parametric statistical test used to compare 3 or more treatment groups
  74. What is analysis of covariance?
    Compares 2 or more groups but also controls for the effects of the intervening variable
  75. What is CHi square?
    Non-parametric statistics test used to compare date in the form of frequency counts
  76. Fluent aphasia (Wernicke's) and PT:
    • IMPAIRED: auditory comprehension
    • PT: use visual: demonstration and gesture
  77. Non-fluent aphasia (Broca's) & PT:
    • IMPAIRED: motor production of speech
    • HAS: understanding of verbal cue is intact
    • PT: use verbal cues
  78. What is terminal swing impact in gait & prosthetics?
    • Sudden stopping of prosthesis as knee extends during late swing
    • CAUSES: too much tension in extension aid & insufficient knee friction
  79. Type 2 diabetes is a result of what?
    Impaired ability of tissues to use insulin & insulin insufficiency
  80. Type 1 diabetes is a result of what?
    Loss of pancreatic beta-cell function
  81. Viral infection and cough:
    Abrupt onset & dry cough
  82. Bacterial infection & cough:
    Gradual onset (3 days) & productive cough
  83. Bacterial pneumonia and SaO2:
    • Decreased 
    • Also dec PaO2
  84. Theophylline & pulmonary:
    • Bronchodilator used to reverse airway obstruction
    • SIDE EFFECTS: toxicity, arrythmias & seizures
  85. Ventolin & pulmonary:
    Bronchodilator used for asthma or COPD
  86. Lemniscal impingement would result in what?
    Sensory changes
  87. CVA shoulder subluxation:
    • Spastic biceps
    • Spastic retraction of scapula with depression & downward elevation
  88. Rinne's test:
    • Used to compare bone to air conduction
    • BC>AC=conductive deafness
    • AC>BC=sensorineural deafness
    • Hold vibrating tuning fork on mastoid process and than in front of ear. Which does pt hear better
  89. Caloric testing:
    Place cool or warm water in ear & observe pattern of nystagmus
  90. Weber's test:
    • Hold vibrating tuning fork on vertex of head, ask pt which ear is louder.
    • Used to differentiate between impaired and not ear
  91. When is arterial bypass graft needed in ulcers?
    When circulation is compromised
  92. Test used to examine laxity of anterior talofibular ligament:
    Anterior drawer test
  93. Talar tilt asseses what?
    Calcaneofibular ligament
  94. Thompson's test assess what?
    Achilles tendon
  95. Morton's test assesses what?
    Presence of stress fracture or neuroma in forefoot
  96. Weakness of quads and hamstring during gait would show when?
    During swing phase of gait in inability to clear floor. Compensation is circumduction
  97. Discal degeneration without nerve compression would exhibit how?
    Centralized gnawing pain with loss of proprioception
  98. How to fix festinating gait:
    Use toe wedge, places COG backwards
  99. To improve fast twitch fibers:
    High intensity exercises at fast contractions for shorter durations (less than 20 sec)
  100. Maximum cervical compression test for what?
    Dysfunctional facet joints
  101. pH: metabolic vs respiratory:
    • Metabolic: high bicarbonate (HCO3) value (24 is normal, high is??
    • Respiratory: CO2 is acid and should be low (30 is low, normal is???
  102. Peak insulin activity is when?
    2-4 hrs after injection
  103. What is used to support longitudinal arch & prevent per valgus?
    • Scaphoid pad
    • Thomas heel
  104. Tendonopathy would be painful with what movements?
    Pain with AROM, not both AROM & PROM
  105. Bursitis is painful with what movements?
  106. W sitting position is bad bc:
    • May cause femoral ante torsion & medial knee stress
    • Kids use to help with trunk control & hip stability
  107. Anterolateral systems pathways (spinothalamic tracts) is responsible for what?
    Pain & temp
  108. SI dysfunction test:
    • SI gapping
    • SI compression
    • Sacral thrust
    • Thigh thrust test (P4)
    • Gaenslen's test
  109. SI pain is aggravated with what?
    • Prolonged WB
    • Stairs
  110. Pt with supraspinatus tendonitis & arm elevation:
    • Likely be able to raise arm overhead with painful arc of motion or pain at end range
    • Caused by overuse
  111. Preinfarction or unstable angina:
    • Unrelieved by rest or nytriglicerine
    • Pain increasing in intensity
  112. What activity is used to break up synergies of LE after CVA?
    • Bridging: hipe ext from ext synergy & knee flex from flex synergy
    • Combines both in one, so doesn't overdo 1
  113. Age & wounds:
    ELDERLY: less scarring, DEC elasticity, DEC eccrine sweating, DEC vascular & immune responses
  114. Typical pattern of spasticity in UE after CVA:
    • Shoulder ADD
    • Forearm pronation
    • Flexion of elbow, wrist, hand
  115. Shortened stride length can be bc of what?
    Contracted hip flexors
  116. Decreased knee extension during stance part of gait why?
    Contracted hamstring or weak quads
  117. Which glide to use for GH ER?
  118. Posterior-superior glide for GH will improve what?
  119. Elderly & memory impairments:
    • IMPAIRED: recall of recent events
    • HAVE: immediate recall, long term
  120. What is seen with Alzheimers & state?
    Agitation & wandering (sundowning) - stage II
  121. Wounds & E-stim:
    • PLACEMENT: directly in wound
    • CATHODE: wounds with bacteria
    • ANODE: promote healing in clean, uninfected wounds
  122. Atrial fibrilation & exercise:
    Concern if HR > or = to 115-120
  123. Low-rate TENS does what for pain?
    Stronger stimulus & longer pulse duration activates descending inhibition, stimulating endorphin production
  124. For pts on beta-adrenergic meds with exercise use what instead of HR?
  125. Lateral excursion of mandible uses what muscle?
    • Contralateral medial & lateral pterygoids
    • Ipsilateral temporalis
  126. What is a mandibular depressor?
    • Digastrics
    • Geniohyoid
  127. What is Homan's sign?
    Pain in calf perceived with squeezing and DF
  128. Jaw locking in open position with TMJ, why?
    Disc displacement
  129. Bunnel-Littler test:
    Used to determine if there is a joint restriction at MCP joints
  130. Retinacular test used for what?
    Restrictions at PIP joints
  131. Lymphatic manual therapy:
    • Proximal before distal
    • Trunk segments before limb segments
    • Direct lymph flow centrally toward lymphatic ducts
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