neuro 8

  1. how does symp vs parasymp affect eyes?
    • symp: dilates pupils (mydriasis)
    • parasymp: constricts
  2. how does symp vs parasymp affect salivation and tearing
    • symp: inhibits
    • parasymp: stims
  3. how does symp vs parasymp affect urinary bladder
    • symp: relaxes
    • parasym: contracts
  4. pallesthesia
    • vibration sens
    • test it with a tuning fork
  5. barognosis
    ability to id differences of wt of objects in the hand
  6. graphesthesia
    ability to id symbols traced on the skin
  7. bilateral simultaneous stim
    ability to id touch on 2 sides/segments of body
  8. anosognosia
    denial or lack of awareness of severity of own condition
  9. figure-ground discrim
    ability to pick out an object from an array of objects (ex. the break from the rest of a WC)
  10. form constancy
    ability to pick out an object from an array of similarly shaped but differently sized objects
  11. somatotopagnosia
    • a type of body image¬†agnosia
    • loss of ability to id body as a whole, or recognize relationship of body parts
    • forgetting, ignoring, denying, disowning, or misperceiving the body entirely or partially -
  12. hemisomatotopagnosia
    impaired ability to recognize 1/2 of body
  13. prosopagnosia
    inability to recognize faces
  14. topographical disorientation
    inability to navigate a familiar route
  15. vertical disorientation
    inability to id when something is upright (hold a cane upright and ask pt if it's vertical)
  16. ideomotor vs ideational apraxia
    • ideomotor: can't perform on command but can do it spontaneously
    • ideational: can't do it at all
    • apraxia: inability to perform a mvmnt or sequence despite sensation, strength, coordination, attention being in tact
  17. pos babinski response is indicative of what kind of disruption
    corticospinal (pyramidal) tract
  18. modified ashworth scale grading
    • 0: no increased muscle tone
    • 1: slight increase w minimal resistance at end of ROM
    • 1+: slight increase with minimal resistance thru less than half ROM
    • 2: marked increase in tone thru most of ROM, affected part easily moved
    • 3: considerable increase in tone, passive mvmnt difficult
    • 4: affected part rigid in flex or ext
  19. rigidity
    increased resistance to PROM indep of velocity of mvmnt
  20. tone after SCI
    initially flacid, then it's hypertonia/spasticity
  21. changes in tone after a cerebellar stroke, lesion, tumor
    normal or may be decreased
  22. what lesion triggers decerebrate vs decorticate rigidity/posturing
    • decerebrate: brainstem (btwn superior colliculus and vestibular nucleus)
    • decorticate: above the superior colliculus
  23. opisthotonos
    seen when
    • severe spasm of muscles --> head, back, heels arch backward, while arms and hands flex rigidly
    • severe meningitis, tetanus, epilepsy, strychnine poisoning
  24. parts of the PNS that may surprise you
    • anterior horn cell
    • spinal roots
    • cranial nerves
    • Yes, these are PNS not CNS
  25. invol mvmnts with UMNL vs LMNL
    • UMNL: muscle spasms
    • LMNL: fasciculations
  26. reflex scoring scale (capute) for primitive/spinal and tonic/brainstem reflexes
    • 0: absent
    • 1+: tone change but no visible mvmnt
    • 2+: visible, normal
    • 3+: exaggerated
    • 4+: sustained >30 sec
  27. myopathies vs neuropathies of the PNS, where do they usually present first?
    • myopathies: prox¬†
    • neuropathies: dist
  28. abdominal reflex (T6-L1)
    scratch lat to med in each quadrant, and umbilicus should deviate towards the stim
  29. cremasteric reflex (L1-L2)
    stroking of skin of prox and med thigh should produce elevation of the testicle
  30. flexor withdrawal reflex
    noxious stim to sole of foot --> toe ext, DF, flex of hip and knee
  31. traction reflex
    stretch stim from grasping forearm (supine) and pulling --> flexion of UE
  32. positive supporting reflex
    contact to ball of foot in standing position --> rigid ext and PF of LEs
  33. 4 primitive/spinal reflexes
    4 tonic/brainstem reflexes
    • flexor withdrawal
    • crossed extension
    • traction
    • grasp

    • ATNR
    • STNR
    • Positive Supporting
    • Associated Reactions
  34. Associated reactions
    strong vol mvmnt in one body segment --> invol mvmnt in another resting extremity
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neuro 8
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