ch 5 6 7

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  1. What was the Weimar republic?
    new constitution was drafted in that time period. name given by historians to the federal republic and semi-presidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government
  2. What terms of the Versailles Treaty negotiated without Germany's participation provoked a lasting resentment among many Germans participation provoked a lasting resentment among many German's?`
    The war guilt clause which said that Germany accepted safe responsibility for the war and was thus responsible for all the damage caused by the war. Reparation payments
  3. Why was the liberal democratic gov't of the Weimar Republic blamed for the resentment felt by many Germans towards the Treaty of Versailles?
    blamed for the humiliation and economic hardship
  4. What was the Dawes Plan?
    American banks lent money to German gov't
  5. What was the appeal to the German people of Nazism under Adolf Hitler? 
    • absolute nationalism 
    • stronger gov't was needed 
    • Nazi's autocracy of law and order
  6. What was the Aryan race according to hitler?
    The elite race
  7. How were the Jews used as scapegoats by the Nazi Party?
    pre-existing antisemitism 
  8. Define Propaganda
    Exaggeration and misrepresentation of information to rally support for a cause
  9. Outline some of the policies known as "war communism" introduced by the Bolsheviks
    Private property is abolished, hiring labor, and all private enterprise and ownership were abolished.
  10. what was collectivization?
    land taken away from private owners
  11. Who were the Kulaks and why were they eliminated as a class of people?
    Class of prosperous land owning peasants (eliminated the collective)
  12. What was the Stalin's Great Purge? 
    Stalin initiated a period of political repression against millions of people executed or sent into forced labor. 
  13. What powers did the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act give Hitler and the Nazis?
    Ban all political parties except the Nazi party
  14. What was the "Night of the Long Knives"? 
    Assassination of the leadership of the SA
  15. Autarky
    German gov't excluding people of Jewish descent
  16. What are some of the examples of the German government excluding people of Jewish ancestry from society?
    used as scapegoats, part of the Treaty of Versailles
  17. Lebensborn
    reproduction among "desirable" people of Aryan background encourage through programs
  18. What were the programs for boys and girls such as the Hitler Youth and the League of German Maidens designed to accomplish?
    The programs for the boys were focused on future military roles
  19. robber barons
    a business person who employs hand nosed and sometimes questionable tactics in the free market to a mass great personal wealth
  20. monopoly
    A company that increases the price of a product higher than it should be
  21. In what way do credit unions go against classical liberal principles?
    owned by their members
  22. what does the term red scare refer to?
    red for Bolsheviks, fear of communism
  23. What are three central ideas of conservative Republican Warren G. Harding's "return to normalcy" platform?
    isolationism, reduce immigration, a reduction of government involvement in the lives of citizens
  24. consumerism
    consumer spending
  25. income disparity
    inequality in earnings, between the rich and the poor
  26. Describe the business cycle
    periods of economic growth and downfall
  27. what caused the stock market crash of 1929?
    profit taking, panic selling
  28. What is a bank run and how did the crash of the stock market cause this phenomenon?
    a situation at which too many depositors try to withdraw their savings from a financial institution, causing it to go bankrupt.
  29. As a result of the Great Depression and its effects what aspects of a classical economic system were called into question by a greater number of people?
    government should take on a greater role in the economy to prevent such extreme fluctuations and provide citizens with more economic stability
  30. What was Franklin D. Roosevelt's "New Deal"?
    Socially "social net" programs
  31. How did John Maynard Keyes say that the government could control inflation?
    raising taxes, using a central bank to raise interest rates, and decreasing gov't spending
  32. How did Keynes say that the government could stimulate the economy?
    By lowering interest rates and taxes and increasing government spending. Deficit Spending.
  33. In what ways did Roosevelt's New Deal focus on relief, recovery and reform?
    Specifically relief to the unemployed, reform to the economy, and recovery from the Depression
  34. Federal Deposit Insurance
    Insured individual bank deposits against loss
  35. Securities and Exchange Commission
    holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other activities and organizations.
  36. Agriculture Adjustment Act
    Subsidies to farmers to reduce crop and livestock
  37. Works Progress Administration
    Funded and oversaw public works program
  38. Civilian Conservation Corps
    Young men from unemployed families work in rural for $30 a month
  39. Tenesse Valley Authority
    Build dams, control flooding, irrigation, cheap electricity
  40. In what two distinct ways was Roosevelt's New Deal response to a crisis noteworthy?
    • need government for controlling capitalism 
    • liberatedprinciple apply to active citizens
  41. What institution was created in the 1930's under the R.B. Bennett administration to take control of the country's money supply?
    The Bank of Canada. CPI Inflation
  42. Define mixed economy
    RC: Modern welfare state with public institutions and social programs (LC: social Democracy)
  43. Stagflation
    When a recession and inflation occur at the same time
  44. What is the basis of monetarist theory as
    espoused by Milton Friedman?
    Monetarist theory holds that controls a country's money supply is the best means to encourage economic growth and limit.
  45. Why was Fredrich Hayek against a collectivist economic system?
    supply side
  46. What caused the massive government debts and stagflation of the 1970s?
    Liberal governments accepted Keynes advice to spend money during hard times but did not implement his ideas to cut spending during prosperous times because that would be unpopular with voters
  47. Define both deficit and deficit spending
    excess of liabilities or expenditures over income "kick start"
  48. What is Reaganomics? (Or in Britain Thatcherism)
    Reagan tried setting wage and price controls, Reagan wanted less government involvement,
  49. What is trickle-down economics? (AKA Supply-Side economics)
    supply side economics reduced income and business taxes, reduced regulation and increased government spending on the military
  50. What social situations helped cause the Russian Revolution in 1917?
    Outraged by the massive, reaction to the injustices of the authoritarian czarist systems of uncontrolled free-market capitalism
  51. communism
    a system of society with property rested in the community and each member working for the common benefit according to his/her capacity and receiving according to his/her needs.
  52. fascism
    an extreme right-wing, anti democratic nationalism movement which led to totalitarian forms of government in Germany and italy from the 1920s to 1940s
  53. totalitarianism
    a gov't system that seeks complete control over the public and private lives of its citizens
  54. List the types of transformation that totalitarian regimes consider the existing society to be in need of
    Radical and reactionary
  55. radical
    change desired to move toward far left rejection of the political and economic traditions of the past
  56. reactionary
    move toward idealized past and an acceptance of economic inequality
  57. How is conformity to the state ideology achieved under totalitarianism?
    • expensive local, regional and national organization. 
    • youth, professional, culture and athletic groups
    • secret police using terror
    • indoctrination through education 
    • censorship of the medics
  58. Why were many people in Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s receptive to the ideas for social reform that sprang up in Europe?
    Worth of every individual, equality, opportunity, and progress were brought into the repressive, feudal empire of Russia in the 19th century, began movement for change
  59. How did Lenin and the Bolshevik's utilize the situation in Russia?
    revolution was the only way to overturn the government and avoid the further development of individualism
  60. What was Russia renamed in 1924?
    Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
  61. Four Techniques of Dictatorship:
    • Indoctrination: Brainwashing
    • To make sure that people obey and support the system the government controls all media such as television, radio, books, newspapers, and even billboards. the media are used to present a message of the leader's greatness. In the school system children are taught to obey and respect their natural leader

    • Force and Terror: Secret Police
    • Force and terror are used to destroy all opposition to the government. Usually there is a secret police force that rounds up citizens identified by the government as enemies of the state. People may be imprisoned, tortured or killed. The remaining population becomes too afraid to resist. 

    • Direction of Popular Discontent: Scapegoating
    • People's concerns and unhappiness are turned against groups that are blamed for causing the problems of the nation. Usually the targeted group is either a minority population or an outside force. The dictator hopes that the hatred of the citizens will be turned on others instead of toward the government. 

    • Controlled Participation: 
    • Even in dictatorships people must feel a sense of participation in the political process. Elections are held even if there is no real choice. If there is a choice, ballot counting allows the government to manipulate the results. Another form of controlled participation is to allow people to become members in the ruling party. This encourages people to work with the system rather than against it.
  62. 1894- Nicholas II
    became Czar of Russia, he was a weak leader who refused to share political power.
  63. 1900- Vladimir Lenin
    joined the social democrats
  64. 1903-
    Social Democrats split into two groups- the Mensheviks wanted democratic change and the Bolsheviks wanted revolution
  65. 1905
    • a general strike forced the Czar to create a Duma or parliament
    • Russo Japanese war over Manchuria and Korea, Russia loses
  66. WWI 1914
    Russia was defeated by the Germans. Starvation and fear spread in Russia and Czar lost control.
  67. March Revolution 1917
    The Czar tried to dissolve the Duma, Alexander Kerensky, leader of the Duma, refused. He declared a Provisional Government and seized power. Kerensky kept Russia in the war in order to receive Allied Aid.
  68. October Revolution 1917
    The Bolsheviks led by the lenin promised the people "Peace, Bread, and Land." The Bosheviks overthrew the Duma and created worker parliaments and applied Marxist ideas to the Russian economy
  69. Russian Civil War 1918-1921
    The Reds (Bolsheviks) versus the Whites (Mensheviks). The Czar and his family were murdered. Russia became the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the Bolsheviks became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
  70. Stalin's Great Purge
    When Lenin died a power struggle broke out between Stalin and Lenin Trotsky who wanted to spread Communism internationally. Stalin won the struggle and became the Premier  of the Soviet Union in 1927. 

    Stalin moved on to his policies of Industrialization and Collectivization. His paranoia led to massive purges of Soviet Society. Any person or group that threatened Stalin's power was accused of treason and sent to Gulags in Siberia.
  71. Extremist Political Movements
    movements that use violence to create political change.
  72. Authoritarian gov't
    sacrifice individual rights to strengthen the state. People are expected to obey the gov't without a question.
  73. Autocracry
    rule by one person
  74. oligarchy
    rule by a small elite
  75. Crisis Theory
    during times of nation stress like war, famine, or economic depression people turn to extreme political movements. Authoritarian leaders harness the anger and fear of the people
  76. Great Man Theory
    The belief that all advocated in history were due to the actions of "Great Man". This natural elite should be allowed to rule.
  77. Autarky
    resource self-sufficiency or independence from other nations
  78. War Communism
    In Lenin's USSR all private enterprise and ownership were abolished. Property was confiscated from the upper classes and factories were nationalized. Labor was organized military aid consumer goods were rationed.
  79. New Economic Policy
    The Civil War led to drops in agriculture and industrial production. The New Economic Policy (NEP) allowed peasants to own farmland and small private business low level capitalism/ profit motive.
  80. 1927 Stalin
    rid the system of all private ownership and centralized economic planning by implementing five-year plan to increase industrial production
  81. The Weimar Republic
    After WWI Germany created a liberal constitution making it a republic with the Reichstag elected by universal suffrage
  82. Treaty of Versailles - Article 231- The War Guilt Clause
    • Forced Germany to accept blame for the war and pay $33 billion in reparation payments
    • The Rhineland was turned into a de-militarized zone
    • German territoty was given to other countries (Poland)
    • Germany was not involved in negotiations and was forced to sign the treaty (Diktat) 
    • The German people blamed the government for the humiliation and hardship the treaty tcaused (stab in the Back)
  83. 1933 Ruhr Seizure
    France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr industrial region of Germany hoping to claim reparations from the profits of businesses in the region
  84. Dawes Plan
    American banks lent money to Germany allowing it to restart reparation payments. The French and Belgians left the Ruhr
  85. Munich Beer Hail Putsch
    hitler failed attempt to seize power in 1923
  86. Rise of Fascist Ideology
    Fascism is an ultra-nationalist movement that says the state can only be strong when all members of society unite behind a single party and give absolute obedience to one supreme leader. 
  87. Fascists are against
    • democracy
    • socialism
    • communism
  88. Fascists are for
    • elitist 
    • racist
    • imperialism
    • nationalism
    • dictatorship
    • paramiltary
  89. Notes:
    • The conclusion of WWI made many people politically active. liberal democracy in Italy and Germany failed to satisfy the working class. Ex. Soldiers could not find work so they turned to paramilitary organizations like the SA and squarish
    • The fascist leader did not derive power from a constitution. but was the embodiment of the people. Progress is only possible through struggle and war Fascism opposes sympathy, caring, kindness, and other morality because they promote weakness. 
    • In the 1930s fascism looked pretty good for a weekend. Italy and Germany in seriois economic decline. Fascist support came from industrialists, military leaders, conservatives, and others afraid of the growth of the left
  90. Nazi views
    The Nazi's advocacy of law and the order order appealed to many Germans tired of years of instability. They took advantage of widespread pre-existing anti-semitism claiming that Jews were the cause of many of Germany's problems including the Versailles Treaty.
  91. Nuremberg Laws
    Forbid marriage between a Jew and an Aryan and Jew were forbidden from hoisting the national flag.
  92. Reichstah Fire Decree
    A Dutch communist was blamed for the fire. Hitler had Martial Law put in place which restricted personal freedom. The Enabling Act banned all political parties except the Nazi Party
  93. Night of the Long Knives
    Hitler strengthened his position by ordering the assassination of the leadership of the SA which had become a threat to the army's power and Hitler's leadership (Real Politik)
  94. The Hitler Youth
    A boy's program focused on future military rules
  95. league of German Maidens
    girls program involved domesticity, motherhood and child bearing
  96. stagflation
    An economic condition where stagnation and high inflation occur at the same time
  97. Reagonomics USA/ Thatcherism in Britain
    Policies of President Reagan which advocated less government intervention in the economy and pro-industry, anti-labor, anti-environment regulations
  98. stock Market Crash in 1929
    During the Roaring 1920s stock prices rose convincing many people to invest in the market assuming that prices would continue to rise. Profit taking led to a price drop and panic selling and ultimately the market crash 

    People who has savings withdrew their money from financial institutions causing them to go bankrupt (bank run) 6000 banks failed, GNP dropped 50% wages fell 55%, unemployment reached 25%
  99. 1932 Election- Franklin Delaro Roosvelt
    won promising to introduce social welfare benefits (safety net) Roosevelt motto was "relief, recovery, and reform" to pay for the programs Roosevelt significantly increased taxes
  100. The New Deal
    Roosevelt believed in government. The New Deal created government agencies to encorage  economic recovery known as Alphabet Laws
  101. NRA National Recovery Administration
    Better pay/ working conditions, acceptance of trade unions
  102. The supreme court blocked some of Roosevelt's action as being ...
  103. Bank of Canada
    Created in 1930s to take control of the country's money supply
  104. superpowers
    A state that has great power and influence. The term was used to describe the United States and the Soviet Union because of their great influence in economic and military strengths
  105. Proxy War (Surrogate War)
    • Conflicts in which one superpower provides support to a group or state that opposes the rival superpower. The support may consist of money, arms, or soldiers
    • Churchill referred to the physical split between the communist East and the Non-communist West as the Iron Curtain
  106. Alignment
    Countries aligned themselves with either the united States or the Soviet Union to gain economic and Security benefits
  107. Yalta Conference
    Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill redraw the map of Europe setting up spheres of influences i.e. territories and countries over which a powerful country dominates
  108. Expansionism (Hegemony)
    A country's foreign policy of acquiring additional territory violation of another country's sovereignty
  109. Putsdam Conference
    The British and American leaders were concerned about the extent of Soviet influence and the Soviets were concerned with building their influence to protect their borders
  110. Containment
    Attempt to thwart another country's expansionism through means other than direct warfare
  111. Truman Doctrine
    USA support to any people trying to keep their political freedom
  112. Marshall Plan
    USA believed that poverty breeds communism. Free economic aid was offered to help Europe recover after WWII. The U.S. hoped to create alliances and defeat the appeal of communism. Soviet satellite states reject Marshall Pan aid.
  113. Berlin Blockade 1948
    • After 1945 Germany was divided into 4 zones of occupation. The west was split between Britain, France and the USA. The East went to Russia. The city of Berlin in the same way but was deep inside the Soviet sphere. Three air corridors were guaranteed to the West, but nothing else. 
    • Russia blockades all road, rail, and gas transfers to West Berlin. The allies respond with a massive airlift of materials. In 1949 Russia lifts the blockade.
  114. Berlin Wall
    Millions of East Germans fled into west Berlin to escape Communism. This was embarrassing so a wall was built around the city in 1961
  115. NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • In 1949 12 countries including the USA join together in a defensive alliance to protect Western Europe from Russia
    • In 1955 Russia combines the military might of all the East European countries to form the Warsaw Pact 
    • Canada was a founding member of NATO and cooperated in building a united air defense system called the North American Aerospace Defense or NORAD
  116. Brinkmanship
    International behavior that pushes one's demands to the point of threatening military action and takes a country to the brink of war
  117. Hungarian Uprising
    Hungarians revolt in 1956 against communism. Krushchec sends in the Russian troops who forcefully end the revolt
  118. Czechoslovakia 1968 - Prague Spring
    Leader Alexander Dubeck demands more freedoms. The motto is "Socialism with a human face" Brezhnev sends in the Red Army
  119. Brezhnev Doctrine
    Leader of the USSR Leonid Brezhnev would not allow any of the Satellite states to become non-communist
  120. Arms Race
    The soviet explode their first atomic bomb in 1949. Both the USA and USSR begin to stockpile nuclear weapons
  121. Deterrence Theory
    A build up of weapons would scare away any would be attacker
  122. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
    A nuclear is unwinnable since it would kill not only the opponents but also the population of the entire planet
  123. Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961
    Communist Fidel Castro overthrew Cuba and nationalized US corporations. The CIA trains Cuban ex-patriots for an invasion to overthrow Castro but it fails
  124. Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
    Castro turns to Russia for support. in return for aid, Russia wants to put a missile site in Cuba. JFK orders a naval blockade of the island to stop the warhands from being delivered Krushchev agrees to stop deployment if the USA removes missiles from Turkey
  125. Detente
    When major powers tried to lessen the tensions between them through diplomacy, arms talks, and cultural exchanges
  126. Korean War 1950 to 1953
    The communist North invades the non-communist South. The U.N. fights back. Finally the communist Chinese intervene and the war stops where it began along the 38th parallel
  127. McCarthyism or the Red Scare
    US Senator Joseph McCarthy stirred up paranoia about communists infiltrating high offices in America
  128. Vietnam (Indochina)
    • During WWII Japan drove the French out. Ho chi Minh, a communist guerrilla fighter, fought the Japanese to gain independence. After the war the French returned and Ho fought them as well. Ho Chi Minh and his forces known as the Vietminh defeated the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954
    • Ho Chi Minh starts a civil War against the South. The USA was concerned that the Chinese would help Ho. The USA believed in the Domino Theory that if one country falls to communism others would follow
    • In 1973 US troops withdraw from Vietnam. In 1975 communists overrun Laos, Cambodia, and South Vietnam
  129. Vietcong
    South Vietnamese communist sympathizers emerged to fight Americans in a guerrilla war
  130. Afghanistan 1979
    Anti-communist guerrillas called the Taliban start a civil war against the government. Russia invades to support the pro-soviet government (the Soviet Vietnam)
Card Set
ch 5 6 7
Chapter booklets, terms list, notes, and crossword for ch 5,6,7
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