Music History 2

  1. isorhythm
    fixed pattern of pitches with a repeating rhythmic pattern

    talea (repeated rhythm patern) and color (repeating pitch pattern)

    used in ars nova motets of Machaut, De Vitry, and DuFay
  2. motet
    1175 developed out of Notre Dame organum- descant clausula by adding text to top voice

    1250 Franconian- top 2 voices different language (one vernacular), not rhythmic modes

    1300 Petronian- more subdivisions- 5's and 6's- 3 separate texts

    1300 Isorhythmic- talea and color repeated- bottom voice might be instrument- Machaut, De Vitry and DuFay

    1400 Burgundian- one text, not use chant, faux bourdon, upper melody most importnat- Dunstable and DuFay

    1450 Netherlancds/Franco-Flemish- 4 voices all equal-elided cadences- musica ficta- imitation- V-I cadence- Ockeghem, Josquin and Obrecht
  3. clausula
    newly composed polyphonic section for 2+ voices sung in discant style ("note against note") over a cantus firmus

    emerged in Notre Dame School (1175-1250) with Leonin and Perotin and later lead to dev. of motet
  4. ars subtilior
    musical style period following ars nove (late 1300's)

    characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity- highly refined, complex, difficult to sing music

    centered around Paris, Avignon and northern Spain
  5. Le Roman de Fauvel
    The Story of the Fawn-Colored Beast, is a 14th century French poem

    arrangement by Philippe de Vitry in the Ars Nova style.

    piece serves as an allegorical criticism of church and state, using the metaphor of a donkey becoming the ruler of his master's house.

    • donkey's name, which when broken down forms fau-vel, or "veiled lie", also forms an acrostic in which each letter stands for one of the seven deadly sins: Flatterie (Flattery), Avarice
    • (Greed), Vilenie (Guile), Vanité (vanity), Envie (Envy), and Lâcheté (Cowardice).
  6. Messe de Nostre Dame
    (Mass of Our Lady) is a polyphonic mass composed before 1365 by Guillaume de Machaut

    earliest complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass attributable to a single composer.
  7. hocket
    single melody shared by 2 voices so one sings while other rests

    1200's and 1300's

    common in ars antiqua and Notre Dame school and in 1300's in secular vocal music
  8. double leading tone
  9. formes fixes
    fixed forms of the trouveres in Northern France

    popular in 1200's- Adam de la Halle and Richard

    Rondeau, Ballade, Virelai
  10. madrigal
    type of secular vocal music composition, written during the Renaissance and early Baroque, unaccompanied by instruments

    • 1530 First Stage: Franco-Flemish after Josquin and Arcadelt
    • 1550 Prima Practica: Palestrina and Willaert
    • 1560 Transitional: Elizabethan in England, Weelkes
    • 1580 Secunda Practica: chromatic, dissonances of Gesualdo and Monteverdi
    • 1600 Baroque: monody of Monteverdi and Caccini, grand concerto of Gabrielli (last stage of motet and first of concerto)
  11. countenance angloise
    "English Manner"

    described the sweet sounds of English polyphonic music (3rds and 6ths) in 15thC

    Dunstable and Walter Frye (influenced Burgundian School of DuFay and Binchois)
  12. faux bourdon
    "false bass"

    • technique of harmonization used by Burgundian School used in early Ren. and late Med. consists of cantus firmus (top voice) and 2 other voices a 4th and 6th
    • below

    composers: Dufay and Dunstable

    sounds like 1st inversion chords
  13. head motif
    • opening musical idea of a set of movements which serves to unite those movements. It may also be called a motto, and is a frequent device in cyclic
    • masses.
  14. cyclic mass
    • * setting of ordinary of the mass using unifying melody (cantus firmus)
    • * considered the first multi-movement form in western music subject to single organizing principal
    • * 1430-1600
    • * types: motto mass, cantus firmus, paraphrase and parody mass
  15. cantus firmus
    "fixed song"

    pre-existing melody (chant) used as basis of polyphonic composition

    900AD- earliest ones in Musica Enchiriadis, after 100 chant in lower voice
  16. Parisian chanson
    polyphonic French secular song

    popular in 1530's with composers like Claudin de Sermissy

    did not use fixed forms, sounded simpler and more homophonic
  17. Lied
    German art song usually for solo voice ( and later keyboard)

    composers: Isaac, Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, Schubert, Schumann, Wolf
  18. Italian madrigal
    type of through-composed secular vocal composition flourished 1300-1370 (Italian tracento) unrelated to 15th century madrigal

    usually 2 or 3 voices

    usually consisted of 2 stophes and then ritornello in different meter

    composers: Firenzi, Landini and Jacob de Balogna
  19. English madrigal
    brief but intense flowering of the musical madrigal in England, mostly from 1588 to 1627

    were a cappella, light in style, began as either copies or direct translations of Italian models, 3-6 voices

    composers: Thomas Morley, Thomas Weelkes, John Wilbye
  20. chorale
    simple and singable tunes, because they were originally intended to be sung by the congregation rather than a professional choir

    • rhyming words, in strophic form (with the same melody being used for different verses). Within a verse, most chorales follow the AAB pattern of melody that is known
    • as the German Bar form.

    • Martin Luther: Eine feste Burg ist unser Gott
    • JS Bach- used many as basis of cantatas
  21. toccata
    a virtuoso piece of music for a keyboard or plucked string instrument featuring fast-moving, lightly fingered or otherwise virtuosic passages

    rapid runs and arpeggios alternating with chordal or fugal parts

    flourished in Baroque, especially JS Bach, Buxtehude, and Frescobaldi
  22. temperament
    • system of tuning which slightly compromises the pure intervals of just intonation in order to meet other requirements of
    • the system.

    Just intonation has the problem that it cannot modulate to a different key, so could Pythagorean tuning gave way to meant-tone, well-tempered or equal temperament (dividing all 1/2 steps equally)
  23. mannerism
    a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when a more Baroque style began to replace it.

    also, style of highly florid and contrapuntally complex polyphonic music made in France in the late 14th century. This period is now usually referred to as the ars subtilior.
  24. basso continuo
    an accompaniment used in almost all genres of music in the Baroque period

    group of instruments whose most common combination was harpsichord and cello or organ

    usually realized the figured bass
  25. figured bass
    or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note.
Card Set
Music History 2
Graduate Entrance Exam