BIOL Test 2

  1. Carbohydrates are
    C,H,O in ratio of 2:1, H:O,C
  2. Classified by location of carbonyl group, # of groups
    Aldose, (on end), Ketose, (in middle), # of carbons
  3. Glucose, fructose, and other sugars have
    six carbons, hexoses
  4. Trioses, pentoses
    3, 5
  5. In plants storage carb is, structure carb is
    starch, cellulose
  6. In animals storage is, structure is
    glycogen, chitin
  7. Lipids have
    glycerol (alcohol w/ 3 C and OH group) and 3 fatty acids
  8. Saturated have and are
    single bonds, solid at room temp, in animals
  9. Unsat have, are, are from
    double bonds, liquid b/c of kink, plants
  10. AAs have, are different b/c of
    carboxyl and amino group, R group
  11. AAs make
  12. AAs are
    polypeptides, which make proteins
  13. Bonds for Carbs, Proteins, Lipids
    glycosidic, peptide, ester
  14. Protein primary structure is
    unique sequence of aas
  15. Protein secondary structure
    weak H bonds, helix, pleated sheet
  16. Protein tertiary structure
    R groups interactions, has covalent disulfide bonds with two cysteine monomers using sulfhydryls, ionic, van der waals
  17. Protein quarternary structure
    aggregation of polypeptide subunits in triple helix, hemoglobin for ex
  18. Slight change in aa structure changes
    function, sickle cell disease
  19. DNA has
    deoxyribose, one less O, has thynine, double helix, Pent, CGAT
  20. RNA has
    ribose, pentose, uracil, single helix, CGAU
  21. Nucleotide monomer has
    Nitrogenous base (purine or pyrimidine), phosphate group, and pentose sugar
  22. Pyrimidines
    3 of them, Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil, single C ring,
  23. Purine
    2 of them, Adenine, Guanine, 2 C rings,
  24. cell fractionation
    uses centrifuge to separate major organelles
  25. Prokaryotic has
    ribosomes they are just free
  26. These contain DNA, these don't
    mitochondria, chloroplast, ribsomes
  27. nucleus fx
    houses chromosomes, DNA
  28. ribsome fx
    protein synthesis
  29. ER fx
    smooth- synthesis of lipids, metab of carbs, ca storage, detoxification, rough- aids in synthesis of secretory and other proteins from bound ribosomes, adds carbs to glycoproteins, produces new membrane
  30. GA fx
    modifies proteins, carbs on proteins, and phopholipids, synthesis of many polysaccs, sorting of golgi products which are then released in vesicles
  31. Lysosome fx
    breakdown of ingested substances for recycling
  32. Vacuole fx
    digestion, storage, waste disposal, water balance, cell growth, protection
  33. mitochondrion fx
    cell respiration
  34. chloroplast fx
  35. peroxisome fx
    has enzymes that transfer h to h2o, producing H2O2
  36. Mitochodria and chloroplasts contain
  37. Mitochondria are found in
    plant, animals, fungi and most protists
  38. Catabolic vs anabolic pathways
    cata release energy, break down complex moles to make simpler ones, ana consume energy to build comples moles, aa to proteins
  39. Laws of thermodynamics
    1st energy can't be destroyed or created, every energy transfer increases entropy of universe
  40. Exergonic rx
    net relase of free energy, deltaG decreases, spontaneously happens,
  41. Endergonic rx
    absorbs free energy, G increases, G is positive, nonspontaeous
  42. Enzyme acts on a reactant called a
  43. Restricted site or region a pocket or groove where catalysis occurs
    active site
  44. Competitive vs no competitive
    comp mimics substrate and competes for active site, non comp binds away from active site, changes shape and keeps from acting efficiently
  45. H2O moves from
    lower to higher concentration
  46. EA
    Energy of activation, req to start rx, contorts moles so the bonds can break
  47. Makes membrane less fluid by restraining phospholipid movement
  48. Moles spread out evenly into available space, down concentration gradient, spontan, passive transport
Card Set
BIOL Test 2
SAC BIOL 1406 Test 2