History 11 Chapters 1-3

  1. Cultural and agricultural achievements of the civilizations in Central America (Meso-Americans, Mayans, and Aztecs)
    • Cultural:
    • written language
    • numerical system
    • accurate calendar
    • important trade routes

    • Agricultural:
    • Advanced system
  2. Cultural and agricultural achievements of the civilizations in Southern America (Incas)
    • Cultural:
    • Innovative administrative systems
    • network of paved roads

  3. Cultural and agricultural achievements of the civilizations in Northern America
    • Cultural:
    • societies consisted of hunting, gathering, fishing
    • substantial towns were built
    • trade, crafts, religious/civic rituals in towns
    • Eastern third of US consisted of hunting, gathering, and fishing

    • Agricultural:
    • large irrigation systems in SW
    • sedimentary farming and hunting buffalo(Great Plains)
    • trading networks based on corn
    • Northeast nomadic farming-exploited land quickly
    • found new sources of food, clothing, and shelter
  4. Cultural and agricultural achievements of the Aztecs
    • Aztecs: pop of 100,000
    • aqueducts
    • public buildings
    • schools
    • military
    • medical system 
    • slave workforce
    • taxes
  5. What was the status of priests and nobles?
    • elevated status
    • priests and nobles were the link between commoners and gods
    • well-versed, knew when to plant because of access to the calendar
  6. Human sacrifices in Aztec culture
    • to appease the gods
    • often sacrificed enemies (POW's) and children
  7. 3 characteristics of advanced civilizations
    • written language
    • accurate calendar
    • advanced agricultural achievements
  8. Areas where these civilizations were lacking?
    • no wheeled vehicles
    • isolation- no immunities to foreign disease
    • 300 year technological gap behind Europeans
  9. European Advantages
    • horses
    • gun powder
    • immunities to disease because of contact with other people groups
    • ships 
    • metals
    • armor
    • borrow ideas from other cultures
  10. Relations between the tribes of North America
    • no common language
    • no common culture
    • fragile alliancess
    • peoples of Americas did not think of themselves as a single civilization
    • Indians viewed whites as another tribe to resist
    • rarely united in opposition to whites
    • enormous diversity of economic, social, political structures
  11. Negative and Positive Results of Black Death
    • Negative:
    • The black death- killed more than 1/3 of the European continent
    • lack of sanitation spread disease
    • families disintegrated

    • Positive:
    • population rebounded 1/2 century later
    • there was a rise in land values
    • more class mobility
    • immunity for those who survived
  12. Incentives for European overseas Exploration
    • by 1500 Europeans had:
    • ability to build ships
    • Independent merchant class that wanted to colonize the world
    • increase in prosperity and desire for commerce
    • significant population growth 
    • more powerful, united, governments
  13. Why was trading by land with Asia dangerous?
    Why did the settler want to trade with Asia?
    • robbers
    • land routes take too much time
    • Asia had silk
  14. Bubonic Plague: when, how, what?
    • 1347
    • fleas from rats traced to ships off the coast of Italy/Sicily
    • black fingernails, lympnodes, and mucus
  15. Christopher Columbus 1492
    • 1492 was the year when Muslims are kicked out of Spain after occupying Spain for 700 years
    • after kicking Muslims out, Spanish believe that God has willed for them to conquer and convert
    • Columbus was a mystic
    • He wanted to go West to the New World which he thought was the Far East
    • Portuguese explorer sailing for Spain
    • his two mistaken beliefs: Earth was smaller than it actually was
    • Asian continent extended further Eastward than it actually did
    •  impetus for Spanish exploration of the New World 1500 AD
  16. Prince Henry the Navigator
    • wanted to explore western coast of Africa and establish a christian empire to fight the Moores
    • hoped to find gold
  17. Three distinct periods of Spanish Exploration in the New World
    • 1.Age of discovery: began with Columbus and continuing through the first two decades of 16th century
    • 2.Age of Conquest: Spanish Military forces established dominion over the lands once ruled by natives
    • 3.1570's new Spanish laws banned most brutal military conquests
    • from that point on the Spanish expanded their presence in America through colonialization
  18. Hernando Cortes
    • most brutal of the conquistadors
    • traveled North from Mexico into what is now New Mexico
    • establishes a Plantation and hears that Tenichotitlan has gold
    • in 1519 he takes 600 men, 10 ships, and 17 horses on the shore of Veracruz
    • natives thought Cortes was god Quetzalcoatl (white man with a beard) returning to reclaim his glory or position in 1519
    • Spanish brought guns with them which were called the "Thunder of the gods"
  19. Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs
    • diseases like smallpox decimated the Indians
    • Indians were treated brutally: destroyed their artifacts, converted them to Catholicism
    • other Indian tribes allied themselves with the Europeans to defeat the Aztecs
    • Whites had superior tactics, weapons
    • whites brought new crops and catholic faith
    • 1531 appearance of virgin Mary to Juan Diego solidified Aztecs acceptance of Catholicism
    • Rapid Conquest
  20. The political systems of Southern and Western Africa
    • Southern: isolated from Europe, 
    • more politically fragmented
    • central social unit was the village-consisted of members of an extended family group
    • developed trade in woven fabrics, ceramics, wood, and iron goods, crops, livestock, but among themselves and barely interacted with outside world

    • Western:extensive and complex civilizations
    • had commercial contact with the Mediterranean and traded ivory, gold, and slaves for finished goods
    • early converts to Islam

    most were sedentary people
  21. The Separatists and North America
  22. Martin Luther
    • Martin Luther, Catholic Monk, nailed 95 theses on the door of his church in Wittenburg, Germany in 1517
    • some of the people were peddling to the superstitions of people by selling relics
    • his main complaint was against selling indulgences
  23. Separatists resulted from the Protestant Revolution
    • Gutenburg Bible- Bible translated into German
    • Luther wanted to reform not overthrow the church
    • Luther was excomunnicated
    • John Calvin was one of the Separatists, and he wrote a book called "Institutes of Christian Religion"
  24. The defeat of the Spanish Armada
Card Set
History 11 Chapters 1-3
Ag achievements of civilizations in North, Central, and South America to the differences in the American and British political systems