- angle btwn a line from ASIS to central patella & central patella to tibial tubercle
- norms: 13 for men, 18 for women
things that increase Q angle
- weak vastus medialis
- tibial ER
- femoral anteversion
- genu valgum
- tight lateral retinaculum
dull, aching pain travels in which tract
anterior (paleo)spinothalamic tract
discriminative (is a stim sharp or dull) pain travels in which tract
lateral (neo)spinothalamic tract
discriminative touch (2 pt discrim) is in which tract
proprioceptive pathways (fasciculus gracilis/cuneatus, medial lemniscus)
post MI pts (recent MI), what's the rec for how to judge exercise
HR < 120 and rate of perceived exertion < 13
resting HR plus 30 is a good guide for exercising what pts?
cycolosporine is what
DM and ischemia?
- pts w DM can have silent ischemia -- they may not feel any angina
- so, monitor them with 12-lead EKG if you're concerned
which kind of foam or gel cushion is used to relieve IT pressure
high density (not low)
when to use low vs high detection sensitivity in biofeedback
- low: for spasticity, or any condition where there's too much contraction
- high: when you want to pick up subtle, small contractions
adolescent female knee pain -- what are the normal positions of her hip, knee, tibia, foot for someone who developed this pain?
- femor: IR
- pes planus
- lateral tibial torsion
- genu valgum
hip ER is associated with what at the knee?
visual disturbance where objects seem to oscillate --> N/V
- episodic vertigo
- full sensation in ear
- low frequency hearing loss
which CN does tongue protrusion
- hypoglossal CN XII
- and other tongue movements
rise and fall of larynx during swallowing -- which CN
CN XI accessory
best test for CN 9 and 10?
elicit gag reflex
- semi: supine but with head of bed raised 30 degrees
- high: hob up at 90 degrees (long sit)
for a pt w/o abdominal musculature to return diaphragm to high-domed position for exhalation, what's the best pos in bed for breathing?
- inability to perform purposeful motor act both automatically and on command
- failure in conceptualization of the task
inability to select and attend to a specific stim while simultaneously suppressing extraneous stim
most kids with Down syndrome walk by when
serratus ant stabilizes scap when scap is where?
> 90 abd
basal ganglia does what
problems here --> ?
- converts general motor activity into specific, goal directed action plans
- problems in motor planning, scaling of mvmnts and postures
paralysis, hypertonicity, hyperreflexia -- which tract is involved?
vagus nerve involvement --> what in uvula and gag reflex?
- uvula deviates to one side
- decreased gag reflex (I think CN IX can get this too)
Kaposi-Stemmer sign (or just Stemmer's sign)
- inability or difficulty lifting or pinching skin over dorsal proximal fingers or toes
- indicates lymphedema
continuous passive motion (CPM) on a knee following a TKR best assists __
active knee flexion
ultrasound can be performed over implants made of what material
metal, not plastic
supine, but tilted with feet 15-30 degrees higher than head
- collapsed lung
- symptoms included 1 sided chest pain, SOB, no breath sounds on that side,
CT vs MRI
- CT: use x-rays, better at bones
- MRI: use magnets, better at soft tissue like the brain
PD pt normal UE posture
- elbow flexion, shoulder add
- flexed, stooped posture
soft callus phase of bone healing (visible on radiograph) is when?
when can you say a fracture is nonunion
- if there's no sign of bone repair for 3 consecutive months
- (no bridging, no callus)
- long term arthritis in spine, usually at the base
- can lead to fusion of vertebra and a hunched posture
- first symptom: painful red-eye, light sensitivity, blurred vision