Summer Session A to Midterm #1

  2. Chapter 1
  3. health
    a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being
  4. etiology
    origins or causes of illness
  5. What does health psychology examine?
    the psychological and social factors that lead to the enhancement of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, and the evaluation and modification of health policies that influence health care
  6. How has the philosophical perspectives on the mind-body relationship from the time of ancient cultures changed to the present day opinion?
    A dualist, separatist mentality between the mind and the body existed in the time of ancient cultures, whereas now we understand that the mind and body are intertwined.
  7. Summarize the criticisms of the psychosomatic medical philosophy.
    It stated that conflicts produce anxiety which becomes unconscious and takes a physiological toll on the body via the autonomic nervous system to produce illness. Bodily disorders were said to have been physical manifestations of emotional conflicts.
  8. Compare and contrast the biopsychosocial model and biomedical models of health.
    The biomedical model assumes that all illness can be explained on the basis of physiology, whereas the biopsychosocial model assumes that health and illness are consequences of the interplay of biological, psychological and social factors. This explains genetic diseases and various immunity.
  9. Describe how systems theory explains the interaction of biopsychosocial variables.
    Systems theory assumes that all levels of organization are linked to each other hierarchically and that change in any one level will effect change in all other levels, explaining how the mind and body interact.
  10. Differentiate between acute disorders and chronic illnesses.
    Acute disorders are caused by trauma during a person's life, whereas chronic illnesses progress slowly for a long duration, and people may or may not be born with them.
  11. Explain epidemiology, morbidity and mortality.
    • epidemiology: the branch of science dealing with the incidence, distribution and control of disease and other health factors
    • morbidity: the number of people affected by a disease at a certain time
    • mortality: the number of people dead caused by a certain disease at a certain time
  12. Describe the research methodologies used by health psychologists.
    • True Experimental Designs: manipulate IV, measure DV
    • Correlational Designs: measure IV, measure DV
    • Mixed Designs - measure & manipulate IV, measure DV
    • Longitudinal Designs: measure or manipulate IV, measure DV
    • Cross-Sectional Designs: measure or manipulate IV, measure DV
    • Diary Designs: "mini-longitudinal": measure IV, manipulate IV, measure DV
  13. Chapter 2
  14. 1. the nervous system and endocrine system act as the control systems of the body, mobilizing it in times of threat and otherwise maintaining equilibrium and normal functioning.
  15. Identify and describe the structure of the nervous system, the peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems.
    2. the peripheral nervous system operates primarily through the exchange of nerve impulses between nerve endings and internal organs and the brain for voluntary movement. The autonomic nervous system accounts for involuntary movement within a nerve.
  16. Describe the structure and functions of the endocrine system. Describe the functions of the adrenal glands and their role in the endocrine system.
    3. the endocrine system operates chemically via the release of hormones (stimulated by centers in the brain) by the body's pair of adrenal glands. It controls growth and development and augments the functioning of the nervous system.
  17. Describe the structure and function of the cardiovascular system.
    4. the cardiovascular system is the transport system of the body. it carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and takes carbon dioxide and other wastes away from the tissues for expulsion from the body.
  18. Describe the structure and function of the heart.
    5. the heart acts as a pump to control circulation and is responsive to regulation via the nervous system and the endocrine system.
  19. Describe the factors that influence blood pressure and identify common disorders of the cardiovascular system.
    • 6. the cardiovascular system is implicated in stress, with cardiac output speeds up, and blood pressure increases.
    • atherosclerosis
    • coronary artery disease
    • heart attack
  20. Identify common blood-related disorders.
    7. the heart, blood vessels, and blood are vulnerable to a number of problems, most notably atherosclerosis, which makes diseases of the cardiovascular system the major cause of death in America.
  21. Describe the structure and function of the respiratory system.
    8. the respiratory system is responsible for taking in oxygen, expelling carbon dioxide and controlling the chemical composition of the blood.
  22. Describe the structure and function of the digestive system.
    9. the digestive system is responsible for producing heat and energy, which along with essential nutrients, are needed for cell growth & repair. Through digestion, food is broken down to be used by the cells for this process.
  23. Describe the structure and function of the renal system.
    10. the renal system aids in metabolic processes by regulating water, electrolyte and blood alkalinity balances. Water-soluble wastes are flushed out of the system in urine.
  24. Describe the structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems.
    11. the reproductive system, under the control of the endocrine system, leads to the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics. through this system, the species is reproduced, and genetic material is transmitted from parents to offspring.
  25. Explain the inheritance of susceptibility to disease, and describe the role of psychology in genetics.
    • People are more susceptible to diseases that have highly genetically heritable.
    • 12. with advances in genetic tech, and mapping of genome, we understand genetic factors of diseases.
  26. Describe the routes of disease transmission and the course of infection.
    • airborne through respiratory system, fecal-oral contamination, sexual, direct oral, direct contact, vertical (mother to fetus), vector-borne
    • 13. the immune system produces infection-fighting cells (white blood cells) and chemicals, which is responsible for warding off infection from invasion by foreign substances.
  27. Describe the nature of immunity, and differentiate between nonspecific and specific immune mechanisms.
    • immunity: the capability of the body to resist harmful microbes from entering it
    • nonspecific immunity: defense against foreign particles
    • specific immunity: resistance to specific infectious diseased pathogens
  28. How are psychological measurement dimensions identified?
    They are self-reported in surveys or questionnaires.
  29. How are cognitive measurement dimensions identified?
    They are directly tested in an objective setting.
  30. How are biological measurement dimensions identified?
    They are directly measured, via cortisol in the saliva, for example.
  31. How are behavioral measurement dimensions identified?
    They must be observed or self-reported for an accurate representation.
  32. How are demographic measurement dimensions identified?
    They are self-reported one time, because they are stable and rarely (if ever) ever change, such as ethnicity or gender/sex.
  33. Parts Of The Brain:
  34. Differentiate between the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
    The medulla oblongata and the pons are located in the hindbrain, with the cerebellum just behind and below them at the base of the skull.
  35. Describe the function of the medulla.
    • controls autonomic functions (beathing, heart rate, organs)
    • relays nerve signals between the brain and the spinal cord
  36. Describe the function of the pons.
    • arousal
    • auditory and balance
    • helps sensory and motor [information relay between the cerebrum and the cerebellum]
    • sleep
  37. Describe the function of the cerebellum.
    • translates plans into specific instructions
    • timing
    • rapid eye movement
    • motor coordination
    • motor learning
  38. Describe the functions of the midbrain.
    • controls responses to sight
    • eye movement
    • pupil dilation
    • body movement
    • hearing
  39. Describe the structure of the forebrain.
    • connects the limbic system (essential animal behaviors) to other parts of the brain
    • secretes melatonin by the pineal gland
    • hunger and thirst
  40. Describe the thalamus and its functions.
    • motor control
    • hearing
    • seeing
    • touching
    • then it sends the info to the cerebral cortex
  41. Describe the hypothalamus and its functions.
    • emotions
    • endocrine functions
    • homeostasis
    • motor functions
    • regulates food and water intake
    • regulates sleep/wake cycle
    • CONTROLS! autonomic functions
  42. Describe the structure and functions of the four lobes that make up the cerebral cortex.
    • frontal: emotion & personality
    • temporal: hearing & comprehension
    • parietal: sensation, perception, spatial, world normalcy
    • occipital: vision
  43. Describe the structure and functions of the limbic system.
    • emotion
    • motivation
    • learning
    • memory
  44. Describe the nature and functions of neurotransmitters.
    chemicals that carries, boost and controls signals across a synapse from neuron to a 'target' neuron
  45. adrenal glands
  46. angina pectoris
  47. atherosclerosis
  48. autoimmunity
  49. blood pressure
  50. cardiovascular system
  51. catecholamines
  52. cell-mediated immunity
  53. cerebellum
  54. cerebral cortex
  55. endocrine system
  56. humoral immunity
  57. hypothalamus
  58. immunity
  59. kidney dialysis
  60. lymphatic system
  61. medulla
  62. myocardial infarction (MI)
  63. nervous system
  64. neurotransmitters
  65. nonspecific immune mechanisms
  66. parasympathetic nervous system
  67. phagocytosis
  68. pituitary gland
  69. platelets
  70. pons
  71. renal system
  72. respiratory system
  73. specific immune mechanisms
  74. sympathetic nervous system
  75. thalamus
  76. Chapter 6
  77. 1. events are perceived as "stressful" when people believe that their resources may not be sufficient to overcome a situation. too much stress produces adverse emotional reactions, cognitive responses, physiological reactions, and performance decrements.
  78. 2. early research on stress examined how an organism mobilizes its resources to fight or flight. Selye proposed the "general adaption syndrome" saying reactions to stress go through phases, 1) alarm, 2) resistance, 3) exhaustion.
  79. 3. the physiology of stress implicates the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticol (HPA) axis. repeated long-term activation to these systems can lead to cumulative damage called "allostatic load" which represents the premature physiological aging that stress produces.
  80. 4. whether an event is stressful depends on how it is appraised (ie. negative, unpredictable, threatening to life).
  81. 5. severe stressors may cause chronic problems for health and mental health, having disruptive aftereffects (ie. persistent physiological arousal), physiological distress, poor task performance, and declines in cognitive capabilities.
  82. 6. research on stressful life events indicates that *any* event that forces a person to make a chance increases stress and the likelihood of illness.
  83. 7. studies of occupational stress suggest work hazards, work overload, work pressure, role conflict & ambiguity, inability to develop satisfying job relationships, unemployment etc can lead to increased illness.
  84. 8. combining multiple life roles can create role conflict and role overload, producing psychological distress and poor health. role combinations may enhance self-esteem and well-being.
  85. acute stress paradigm
  86. aftereffects of stress
  87. allostatic load
  88. chronic strain
  89. daily hassles
  90. fight-or-flight response
  91. general adaptation syndrome
  92. perceived stress
  93. person-environment fit
  94. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  95. primary appraisal
  96. reactivity
  97. role conflict
  98. secondary appraisal
  99. stress
  100. stressful life events
  101. stressors
  102. tend-and-befriend
  103. Chapter 7
  104. 1. coping is the process of managing demands that tax or exceed a person's resources. it is influenced by primary appraisals & secondary appraisals.
  105. 2. coping efforts are guided by internal and external resources. internal resources include preferred coping style and coping resources: optimism, personal control, self-esteem. external resources: time, money, absence of simultaneous stressors, and social support.
  106. 3. coping styles consist of predispositions to cope with stressful situations in particular ways. distinction: approach-related coping styles and avoidance-related coping styles. avoidance may be good short-term, but approach may be best.
  107. 4. coping may be directed to solving problems or regulating emotions. most stressful events evoke both types of coping.
  108. 5. coping efforts are judged to be successful when they reduce physiological indicators of arousal, enable resuming desired activities, and free them from psych distress.
  109. 6. social support can be an effective resource in times of stress, reducing psychological distress and likelihood of illness.
  110. 7. tasks toward which coping efforts are directed include reducing harmful environmental conditions and enhancing the adjustment process, tolerating and adjusting to negative events and realities, maintaining a positive self-image, emotional equilibrium, continued satisfaction in relationships, and illness recovery.
  111. 8. coping effectiveness training (based on cognitive-behavioral therapy principles), emotional disclosure, and expressive writing can communicate effective coping skills.
  112. 9. stress management programs teach people to identify sources of stress, develop coping skills, and practice employment of skills to monitor their effectiveness.
  113. approach (confrontative, vigilant) coping style
  114. avoidant (minimizing) coping style
  115. buffering hypothesis
  116. control-enhancing interventions
  117. coping
  118. coping outcomes
  119. coping style
  120. direct effects hypothesis
  121. emotion-focused coping
  122. emotional-approach coping
  123. emotional support
  124. information support
  125. invisible support
  126. matching hypothesis
  127. negative affectivity
  128. problem-focused coping
  129. psychological control
  130. self-esteem
  131. social support
  132. stress carriers
  133. stress managements
  134. stress moderators
  135. tangible assistance
  136. time management
Card Set
Summer Session A to Midterm #1