APII test #4

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  1. what are the two main parts of the immune system
    • adaptive 
    • innate
  2. what is included in the 1st line of defense
    • skin
    • mucus
    • hair
    • stomach acid
    • salt in sweat
    • enzymes in saliva
  3. what is in the second line of defense
    • compliment
    • inflammation
    • macrophages
    • fever
  4. what are part of the third line of defense
    • antibodies
    • tcells 
    • bcells
  5. how are tcells activated
    antigen presenting cells
  6. what type of tcells directly kill pathogens
    cytotoxic killer tcells
  7. which type of tcells try to suppress the immune system from becoming overactive
  8. what type of Bcell remembers a pathogen
    memery bcells
  9. how are Bcells activated
    • CD4 helper tcells
    • self activated
  10. the type of acquired immunity that comes from a shot of immune system proteins (peanut butter shot)
    artificial passive
  11. type of immunity that comes from a vaccine
    artificial active
  12. how do antibodies help the immune system
    • agglutination
    • neutralization
    • opsonization
    • activate compliment
  13. what are the types of antibodies found in humans
    • IgG
    • IgM
    • IgA
    • IgD
    • IgE
  14. enzyme that is second responder 
    can cross the placenta
  15. antibody that causes degranulation of mast cells
    • IgM
    • IgE
  16. what are two main functions of the lymphatic system
    • clean the blood
    • return extra cellular fluid to blood circulation
  17. what is the location of tcell maturation
  18. type of lymphatic tissue located around ileum of small intesitine
    peyers patches
  19. what are the ducts that collect lymph and return it to the subclavian veins
    • right lymphatic
    • thoracic duct
  20. why is bone marrow important for the lymphatic system
    site of tcell and bcell production
  21. what do cd4 helper tcells do when they are activated
    release cytokines
  22. what is the innermost layer of the GI tube called
    tunica mucosa
  23. what is the outermost layer of the GI tube called
    tunica serosa
  24. what is the order of the layers of the GI tube starting from the innermost layer
    • tunica mucosa
    • tunica submucosa
    • tunica muscularis
    • tunica serosa
  25. what makes up the gastric juices
    • mucus
    • pepsin
    • HCL
  26. what is released from the pancreas to help with digestion
  27. what do pancreatic juices consist of
    • pancreatic amylase
    • pancreatic lipase
    • nuclease
    • proteases
  28. what are the enzymes that digest polysaccharides
    • salivary amylase
    • panctreatic amylase
  29. what do nucleases digest
    nucleic acids
  30. where is bile produced
  31. what are enzymes produced by the small intestine mucosal cells
    • intestinal lipase
    • sucrase
    • lactase
    • maltase
  32. what type of tissue is found in the lining of the alveoli
    simple squamous epithelium
  33. what type of tissue makes up the cilia escalator
    psuedostratified columnar epithelium with cilia
  34. why do our bodies need O2
    for the electron transport chain
  35. why do our bodies release CO2
    • leads to a decrease in pH
    • CO2 causes pH to rise
  36. what are the two componants of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
    • juxtaglomerular cells
    • macula densa
  37. what cells release renin into the blood
    macula densa
  38. what does renin do
    changes angiotensinogen into angiotensin I
  39. what activates the sodium potassium pump in the distal convaluted tubule causing the nephron to reabsorb more sodium
  40. where is glucose reabsorbed into the blood from
    proximal convuluted tubule
  41. what does the angiotensin pathway do
    increases blood pressure
  42. what are the functions of the kidney
    • filter blood
    • regulate blood volume
    • regulate blood osmolality
    • regulate pH
    • control red blood cell production
  43. what does GFR stand for
    glomerular filtration rate
  44. what is a normal GFR
    60-90 ml/min
  45. how do negatively charged electrons cross from the nephron into the blood
    follow positvely charged ions that are actively transported
  46. what is the name of the capillaries surrounding the nephron
    peritubular capillaries
  47. what is the name of the blood vessel moving toward the nephron
    afferent glomerular arteriole
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APII test #4
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