1. Enthalpy
    a thermodynamic quantity that ist he sum of the internal energy plus the product ofo pressure and volume
  2. joule (J)
    the SI unit of energy
  3. thermochemistry
    the branch of thermodynamics that focuses on the heat involved in chemical and physical change
  4. thermodynamics
    the study of heat and its interconversions
  5. energy
    the capacity to do work, or move matter
  6. heat (q)
    the energy transferred between objects because of differences in their temperatures only
  7. work (w)
    the energy transferred when an object is moved by a force
  8. specific heat (c)
    the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1K.
  9. heat of formation
    the enthalpy change for the formation equation when all substances are in their standard states
  10. Hess's law
    the enthalpy change of an overall process is the sum of the enthalpy changes of its individual steps
  11. state function
    a property of the system defined by its current state
  12. Heat of reaction (/\Hrxn)
    the enthalpy change of a reaction
  13. bond energy
    the enthalpy change accompanying the breakage of a given bond in a mole of gaseous molecules
  14. 1st law of Thermodynamics
    The total energy of the universe is constant
  15. All processes occur spontaneously in the direction that increases the entropy of the universe
    A perfect crystal has zero entropy at a temperature of absoulte zero
  16. microstate
    Each quantized state of the whole system of molecules
  17. system
    the defined part of the universe under study
  18. surroundings
    all parts of the universe other than the system being considered
  19. spontaneous process
    the time-evolution of a system in which it releases free energy and moves to a lower energy state
  20. free energy (G)
    A thermodynamic quantity that is the difference between the enthalpy and the product of the absolute temperature and entropy
  21. electrochemistry
    the study of the relationship between chemical change and electrical work
  22. oxidation
    the loss of electrons by a species, accompanied by an increase in oxidation number
  23. oxidizing agent
    the substance that accepts electrons in a reaction and undergoes a decrease in oxidation number
  24. redox reaction
    A process in which there is a net movement of electrons from one reactant (reducing agent) to another (oxidizing agent)
  25. reduction
    the gain of electrons by a species, accompanied by a decrease in oxidation number
  26. reducing agent
    the substance that donates electrons in a redox reaction and undergoes an increase in oxidation number
  27. oxidation number
    the charge an atom would have if the shared electrons were held completely by the atom that attracts them more strongly
  28. electrode
    the part of an electrochemical cell that conducts the electricity between the cell and the surroundings
  29. voltaic cell
    an electrochemical cell that uses a spontaneous reaction to generate electric energy
  30. battery
    a self-contained group of voltaic cells arranged in series
  31. electrolytic cell
    an electrochemical system that uses electrical energy to drive a nonspontaneous chemical reaction
  32. electrolysis
    the nonspontaneous splitting of a substance, often to its component elements, by supplying electrical energy
  33. electromotive force/cell potential
    The potential difference between the electrodes of an electrochemical cell when no current flows
  34. corrosion
    the natural redox process that results in unwanted oxidation of a metal
  35. fuel cell
    A battery that is not self-contained and in which electricity is generated by the controlled oxidation of a fuel
Card Set
chem vocab