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  1. what are the accessory glands of digestion
    • salivary glands
    • pancreas
    • liver
    • GB
  2. What are the three primary functions the digestive system performs?
    intake and digestion (intake of water, vitamins and minerals plus the intake and digestion)

    absorption (absorption of food particles water vitamins and essential elements into the blood or lymphatic capillaries)

    elimination: eliminates any unused material in the form of semisolid waste
  3. A radiographic examination of the pharynx and the esophagus is termed
    esophagram or barium swallow
  4. The three pairs of gland that secret most of the saliva in the oral cavity are
    • parotid gland - near the ear
    • submandibular - under the mandible
    • sublingual - under the tongue
  5. During swallowing the _____ closes off the nasopharynx the ______ prevents material from reentering the mouth and the ______ is depressed to cover the laryngeal opening
    • soft palate
    • tongue
    • epiglottis
  6. The esophagus is approx. ______ cm long and begins posterior to the level of the lower border of the _______
    • 25cm
    • cricoid cartilage of larynx (C5-C6)
  7. The esophagus terminates its connection to the stomach, at the level of ________ vertebrae
  8. The most proximal indentation occurs at the _______ the second is found where the esophagus crosses the _______
    • aortic arch
    • left primary bronchus
  9. what is a wavelike series of involuntary contraction
  10. The ________ is the aperture or opening between the esophagus and the stomach.
    the opening or orifice leaving the distal stomach is termed the
    esophogastric junction (cardiac orifice)

    pyloric orifcie
  11. The stomach is composed of three main subdivisions, they are
    • fundus
    • body
    • pylorus
  12. Gastric folds are commonly called
  13. The section of the stomach closest to the posterior abdominal wall is
  14. The ligament of Treitz signifies the end of the
    after is what part of the small intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
  15. Stomach contents are churned or mixed with stomach fluids into a semifluid mass termed
  16. Chemical digestion is speed up by _______ which are biological catalysts found in various digestive juices.
  17. Digested substances and resultant by-products:
    _________simple sugars (mouth and stomach)
    __________amino acids (stomach and small bowel)
    ___________fatty acids and glycerol (small bowel only)
    • carbs
    • protein
    • lipids
  18. List the term for each body habitus
    very slender(10%)
    • hypersthenic
    • sthenic
    • hyposthenic
    • asthenic
  19. Explain an Esophagram
    What is the prep
    It is the study of your esophagus while you are drinking contrast solution

    no prep
  20. Explain an UGI series (w/ SBS)
    it is the study of the entire small intestines, the stomach the distal esophagus duodenum
  21. Why are double contrast studies done?
    to visualize and enhance structures of the organs and lining
  22. Why use both thick and thin barium?
    thick barium is used with air in doub contrast studies coat the lining of the stomach easier

    thin barium allows you to give pt more barium to fully fill the small bowel up into the ileocecal valve or cecum
  23. What contrast media is considered negative or radiolucent?
    room air or C02
  24. What are contraindications to barium sulfate?
    • if there is any chance barium mixture can escape into the peritoneal cavity
    • if patient is pre surgical
    • or sensitivity to barium
  25. What are contraindications to water-soluble iodinated contrast media?
    • if the patient is allergic to iodine and has a history of dehydration
    • pt is really young or really old
  26. What is the pt. prep for a UGI?
    • do not eat drink smoke or chew gum the midnight before the exam
    • any antispasmodic medications should be discontinued 24 before the exam
    • NPO 8 hrs prior
  27. What procedures can be done to test for esophageal reflux? (4)
    • breathing exercises  (valsalva maneuver and mueller)
    • water test
    • compression paddle technique
    • toe touch maneuver
  28. What are the three routine projections for an esophagram?
    CR for above positions
    • RAO (35-40)
    • Lateral
    • Ap (PA)

    perp to t5-t6
  29. What are the optional positions for an esophagram?
    • LAO
    • soft tissue Lateral
  30. What are the routine positions for an
    UGI (5)
    • ap
    • LPO
    • PA
    • RAO
    • RT lateral
  31. State the CR for all positions of the UGI
    what must we adjust if the patient is hypersthenic or asthenic
    • Ap pa = level of l1 (midway between xiphoid tip and lower rib margin)
    • RAO 40-70deg = @ l1(1-2in above lower rib margin) midway between spine and later border of abdomen
    • hypersthenic = 70 deg asthenic 40deg
    • LPO 30-60 deg oblique = @ l1 same cr but center midway between midline of body and left lateral margin
    • RT LAT = @ l1 and 1.5 inch anterior to MCP
  32. How does the CR vary regarding different body habitus?
    hypersthenic patients require the CR to be higher while taller patients (asthenic) require CR to be lower 2in
  33. What degree of obliquity is necessary for oblique position of the stomach? LPO and RAO
    • LPO 30-60
    • RAO 40-70
  34. How does the obliquity differ regarding different body habitué’s in exams of the stomach?
    • a hypersthenic patient requires more rotation the maximum
    • LPO UGI hypersthenic pt = 60 deg oblique
    • and the asthenic patient requires less or the least rotation depending on the position RAO UGI for asthenic pt. = 40 deg oblique
  35. What radiograph will show the bulb in profile filled with contrast media?
  36. What radiograph will show the bulb in profile filled with air?
  37. What radiograph will show the retrogastric space?
    RT lateral
  38. What is achalasia?
    neuromuscular disorder where the gastroesophageal sphincter fails to relax.
  39. What is atresia?
    • esophageal atresia is an abnormal condition characterized by the incomplete development of the esophagus
    • It is almost always associated with a fistulous tract that communicates with the trachea.
  40. What is esophageal varices?
    are dilated tortous veins in the distal esophagus
  41. What is GERD?
    gastroesophageal reflux disease

    it is the backwards flow of gastric and sometimes duodenal contents into the esophagus
  42. What is gastritis?
    What is the definition of emesis?
    • an inflammation of the lining of the stomach
    • the act of vomiting
  43. What is a bezor?
    What is hiatal hernia?
    a mass of undigested material that becomes trapped in the stomach

    is characterized by herniation or protrusion of the stomach through an incompetent cardiac sphincter in the left hemidiaphragm
  44. State the three sections of the small intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  45. how do the three portions of the small intestine differ radiographically
    • jejunum = feathery appearnace
    • ileum = smoother lining less feathery
    • duodenum = c shaped
  46. Which is the longest segment?
  47. What flexure is located between the ascending and transverse colon?
    What flexure is located higher is the abdominal cavity?
    • right colic (hepatic) flexure
    • left colic (splenic) flexure
  48. What another name for the appendix?
    Where is the appendix located?
    • vermiform appendix
    • RLQ
  49. the ileum joins the cecum
    What is the function of the above answer? (2 functions)
    • ileocecal valve
    • acts a sphincter to rpevent the contents of the ileum from passing too quickly into the cecum and prevents reflux of large intestine content into the ileum
  50. What two parts of the large intestine possess the widest freedom of motion?(3)
    cecum sigmoid transverse
  51. the ______ presents two anteroposterior curves
  52. The longitudinal muscle fibers of the large bowel from three bands of muscle called ______ which tend to pull the large intestines into pouches called _________
    taeniae coli; haustra
  53. What are the most anterior portions of the large intestines?
    • transverse colon
    • sigmoid colon
  54. Barium sulfate by mouth is contraindicated in patients with… (2 things)
    presurgical patients and patients suspected to have a perforated hollow viscus

    large bowel obstruction
  55. State four procedures done specifically for the small bowel.
    • Upper GI
    • Small bowel only series
    • enteroclysis
    • intubation method
  56. What procedure is done when air or methylcellulose is injected into the bowel to distend it and provide a double contrast study?
  57. What is the pt. prep for a BE?
    • light evening meal prior to exam - jello
    • bowel cleansing cathartics (laxative)
    • NPO aftermidnight 8 hrs minimum
    • no gum chewing
    • no smoking
  58. What are the contraindications for cathartics?(4)
    • gross bleeding
    • severe diarrhea
    • obstruction
    • inflammatory lesions
  59. Retention tips (most common) are used to …
    for double contrast studies and administration of barium and air and to keep the tip within the rectum during a BE
  60. Glucagon is a drug given intravenously to … (2)
    • to minimize the possibility of colonic spasms due to cold water mixture with barium or tech can use topical anesthetic (lidocaine)
    • slows down peristalsis
  61. What temp. water is said to have an anesthetic effect on the colon and aids to increase the retention of contrast media?
    • cold
    • room temperature water
  62. The _____ position is used to relax the abdominal muscles so tip insertion can be performed.
    sims position
  63. Before the tip insertion the patient should be instructed to
    not to push the tip out of the rectum by bearing down once the tip is inserted

    relax abdominal muscles to prevent increased intra abdominal pressure

    concentrate on breathing by the mouth to reduce spasms and cramping
  64. the initial insertion toward the _____. After the initial insertion the rectal tube is directed _____ and slightly _______ to follow the normal curvature of the rectum
    • umbilicus
    • superior and anteriorly
  65. The height of the enema bag should not exceed ________ inches above the table
    24-32inches or else it will flow to fast
  66. What projection/position is routine for the SBS…? (Why?)?
    how much barium is needed for a SBS
    what is the pt prep for SBS, enteroclysis and intubation procedure
    PA = it compresses the intestines and spreads them out more evenly


    • NPO - 8hrs
    • low residue diet for 48 hrs (jello)
    • no gum chewing
    • no smoking
    • and ask abt pregnancy
  67. where is the CR for SBS pa projection for a 15-30min radiographs
    and hourly radiographs?
    • 2in above iliac crests
    • iliac crests
  68. When does timing beginning for a SBS?
    @ moment of ingestion of barium
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