Explain the "Land Bridge Theory" of the origin of First Peoples in North America. Describe a problem with this theory. (3)
The "Land Bridge Theory" was a theory that suggests that people from Asia migrated to the Americas by crossing a submerged landmass that was above water during the Ice Age. Scientists estimated that this happened between 25,000 and 12,000 years ago. A problem with this theory is that is is not supported conclusively by archaeological sites. An example is an archaeological site in Monte Verde, Chile.
Write a summary of traditional education. (4)
Young people learnt what was expected of them and how can they fit into a society. They were taught and mentored by the whole community. They were taught their community's history, spiritual ideals, and practical kills. Young people could also be taught through dreaming or visioning. A person's education was holistic and was accomplished through storytelling.
Discuss the Haudenosaunee Confederacy. (5)
The Haudenosaunee Confederacy was an alliance between 5 Haudenosaunee nations, later 6. The Haudenosaunee nations were located along a 180 km stretch of the Great Lakes. It was founded on the "Great Law of Peace of the People of the Longhouse," which was a treaty consisting of 117 articles made by 50 chiefs representing the nations. Each had one vote and decisions were made unanimously and had to respect all views.
Describe les Filles du Roi and their impact on Canada. (5)
In 1663, there was only 1 woman for every 6 men in the colony which kept the population low. King Louis XIV paid women (50 French francs) to move to the colony so that they can marry, produce children and become permanent residents of the colony. Women were recruited from orphanages. There were over 700 births in Nouvelle France in 1671. Many French Canadians can trace their lineage back to one of the filles du rois. It also helps explain perception of their place in Canada and responses to many issues.
Explain the negative impact on the fur trade on First Nations. (3)
Communities were torn apart over the issue of fur trade and alcohol. Fur trade increasingly favored the Europeans therefore forcing First Nations to devote more time to it. This meant other tasks were neglected. ex) Since hunters were involved in the fur trade, it meant that sometimes there wouldn't be enough food supply for winter. This led to communities to become more dependent on the fur trade.
Discuss the Loyalists and their impact on Canada. Part I (9)
- group of people from every class, nationality, religion, etc. in North American society.
- remained loyal to Britain and the crown
- left their homes and moved to BNA
- didn't feel safe from the Patriots and relied on Britain to protect them
- others felt a distrust of too much democracy, feared change, wanted freedom, and were promised land
- settled in Quebec and Nova Scotia
- Loyalists in the St. John River Valley wanted to live with people like themselves
- Quebec split into upper and lower Canada
How did the Loyalists culturally impact Canada?
Canada became more diverse as a cultural impact.
How did the Loyalists economically impact Canada?
Economically, many Loyalists became farmers and there was a demand for agricultural land. Also, the rise in population created a market for Canada's owned goods and services, which led to a growth in the manufacturing section, and increased urbanization.
How did the Loyalists socially impact Canada?
Canada also increased the English speaking population, as well as kept British ties throughout the years (Queen as the head of state).
Discuss the Manitoba Schools Question. (5)
When Manitoba became a province there were 2 publicly funded, church-run school systems, one Catholic where instruction was in French and one Protestant where the instruction was in English. By 1890, only 10% of the province spoke French so the legislature created on publicly funded school system that was non-denominational and English. French Catholics didn't like this so they put pressure on the federal government for Manitoba to change the law. The Laurier-Greenway Compromise allowed religious and French instruction and Roman Catholic teachers could be hired where numbers warranted it. since a community only need 23 votes to establish a school to be taught in any language, multiple schools opened, being taught in Polish, German, and Ukrainian. In 1916, the Manitoba government ended this law and went back to English only because of the suspicion of European immigrants during World War I. some larger issues are the balance between French and English in Canada and the balance of power in our federal system.