Chapter 24

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  1. How much of Earth is covered by water?
  2. What controls temperatures on coastal lands?
    waters high specific heat capacity
  3. what was in the atmosphere before the sun was formed?
    hydrogen and helium
  4. what happened when the new atmosphere formed?
    cyanobacteria produced photosynthesis making free oxygen molecules

    water vapor condensed forming oceans
  5. what does the ocean floor consist of
    • continental shelf
    • continental slope
    • continental rise
    • deep ocean basins
    • mid-ocean ridges
    • deep trenches
  6. describe continental slope
    • shallow
    • underwater extension of continent
  7. describe continental slope
    marks boundary between continental and oceanic crusts
  8. describe continental rise
    wedge of accumulated sediment at the base of the continental slope
  9. what are ocean basins
    • basalt from seafloor spreading plus thick accumulations of sediment
    • composed of:
    • abyssal plains
    • ocean trenches
    • seamounts
  10. describe abyssal plains
    flattest part of the ocean due to accumulated sediment
  11. describe ocean trenches
    long deep steep troughs at seduction zones
  12. describe seamounts
    elevated seafloor from volcanism
  13. what are mid-ocean ridges
    • sites of seafloor spreading
    • global mid-ocean ridge winds all around earth
  14. what is in seawater
    • chloride
    • sodium
    • sulfate
    • magnesium
    • calcium
    • potassium
  15. how do you figure salinity
    mass of slats dissoved in 1,000g of seawater
  16. how do waves get energy
    from wind
  17. characteristics of wind
    • crest is the peak of the wave
    • trough is the low area between waves
    • wave height is the distance between a trough and crest
    • wave length is the horizontal distance between crests
    • wave period is the time interval between the pass of two successive crests
  18. what does the height, length and period of a wave depend on?
    • wind speed
    • length of time wind has blown and fetch
  19. what is fetch
    distance that the wind has traveled across open water
  20. how do waves react on the ocean surface
    • orbital
    • energy moves forward (disturbance)
    • occurs in open sea in deep water
  21. how do waves react on the shoreline
    • in shallow water waves being to feel the bottom
    • the wave grows higher as it slows
    • the wavelength shortens
    • steep wave front collapses and the wave breaks
    • turbulent water goes up the shore and forms surf
  22. what happens when a wave enters shallow water?
    • forward direction changes
    • wave nearest the shore slows
    • lags behind incoming waves
    • the next wave slows and pivots
    • the wave crest bends and pivots around slower portion of the wave
  23. what happens when on a long shore current
    • oblique approach of waves
    • the flow is parallel to the shore
  24. what is the impact of wave refraction on shorelines
    • wave energy unevenly distributed
    • energy is concentrated in headland areas
    •      areas of erosion
    • energy is diluted in adjacent coves and bays
    •      areas of depostion
  25. characteristics of coastal erosional landforms
    • wave cut platform
    • sea cliff
    • sea cave
    • sea arch
    • sea stack
  26. what is a wave cut platform
    • shorlines of hard rock
    • surf cuts notches into base of the land
    • as erosion deepens nothechs
    • rocks fall into surf
    • cliff retreats
    • relatively flat surface
  27. characteristics of coastal depositional landforms
    • beach
    • spit
    • lagoon
    • barrier island
    • inlet
  28. describe the beach
    • most common shoreline
    • depositional environment
    • result of turbulent motion of surf
    • waves approach at an oblique angle
  29. what is a split
    submerged ridges of sand
  30. what happens on a barrier island
    ridges of sand break surface of water for a long time and vegetation forms
  31. Describe a coral reef
    • composed of actively growing coral organisms
    • secrete calcium carbonate as they grow
    • survive on photosynthetic algae
    • coral bleaching is an indicator of global warming
  32. what are ocean tides
    • occur because of the differences in the gravitational pull exerted by the moon on opposite sides of earth
    • times of tides vary each day
    • alignment of the sun earth and moon cause spring tides
    • when sun and moon are perpendicular to each other cause neap tides
  33. what are spring tides
    more dramatic highs and lows
  34. what are neap tides
    highs and lows are not as dramatic
  35. what is the earth's atmosphere composed of
    • nitrogen 78%
    • oxygen 21%
    • argon 9%
    • neon
    • helium
    • methane
    • hydrogen
    • water vapor
    • carbon dioxide
    • ozone
    • carbon monoxide
    • sulfur dioxide
    • nitrogen dioxide
    • particles
  36. what are the layers of the atmosphere
    • troposphere
    • stratosphere
    • mesosphere
    • thermosphere
    • ionosphere
    • exosphere
  37. describe troposphere
    • lowest and thinnest layer 
    • 16km at equator
    • 8km at poles
    • 90% of atmospehres mass
    • weather occurs
    • temperature decreases with altitude
    • 6 degrees per km
    • top averages -50 degrees Celcius
  38. describe stratosphere
    • 10-50km
    • ozone layer
    • temps increase because of the ozone
    • ranges from -50 to 0 degrees Celcius
  39. describe the mesosphere
    • 50-80km
    • temperatures decreases with altitude
    • 0 to -90 degrees Celcius
  40. describe the thermosphere
    • temperature increases with altitude
    • low density of gas molecules
  41. describe the ionosphere
    • electrified region within thermosphere and upper mesosphere
    • auroras
  42. describe exosphere
    • interface between earth and space
    • beyond 500km
    • atoms and molecules can escape to space
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Chapter 24
questions for chapter 24
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