Augustus' Honours and Constitutional Position

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  1. How had Augustus secured his power between 31BCE and 28BCE (list)?
    • Closing of the temple of Janus (means peace)
    • Gladiatorial games (pleases the populace)
    • Building works
    • Money to the plebeians (pleases the populace)
    • Census of the people (so he could inforce taxes)
    • The support and demobilisation of the army
    • Consulship every year from 31-27BCE
    • Possibly kept Triumvir power
    • Imperium by virtue of his consular power
  2. What were Augustus' immediate tasks on his return to rome in august 29 bce
    • To restore order and confidence throughout the empire
    • To normalise his position within the state
  3. How many times did augustus hold the consulship
    13 times as in paragraph 4.4 of the res gestae
  4. For how many years did augustus hold tribunician potestas
    For 37 years, as in paragraph 4.4 of the res gestae
  5. Where does augustus list the other titles he held
    In paragraph 7 of the res gestae
  6. Where is it stated "with universal consent I was in complete control of affairs"
    In paragraph 34 of the res gestae
  7. Augustus claims "I was triumvir for the organisation of the republic for ten consecutive years", is this true?
    No as it wasn't consecutive, as in paragraph 7's notes in the res gestae
  8. Which source generates questions about augustus returning rome to a Republic and how
    • Suetonius does in paragraph 28
    • States that he doesn't do it for 2 reasons:
    • That he was ill
    • Because he wanted to prove mark Antony wrong
  9. How many times did Augustus recieve from the Senate a colleague in the power of tribune
    5 times as in paragraph 6.2 of the res gestae
  10. What magistracies was Augustus offered that he turned down
    Dictatorship and the consulship for life
  11. What year was Augustus made imperator
    43 BCE
  12. What year was Augustus made princeps senatus
    28BCE as in paragraph 7.2 of the res gestae
  13. What year did Augustus become augustus as opposed to Octavian
    27BCE as in paragraph 7 of suetonius
  14. What year was Augustus made princeps civitatis
    27BCE as in paragraph 13 of the res gestae
  15. Which title was conferred on augustus at first as a temporary military title
  16. What did being placed head of the senatorial list give augustus the power to do
    Speak first at senatorial meetings
  17. How many years was Augustus princeps senatus
    For 40 years as in paragraph 7.2 of the res gestae
  18. Who confered the title of augustus on Octavian
    The Senate did as in paragraph 7 of suetonius
  19. What does the title princeps imply and what doesn't it imply
    It implies authority but not power
  20. What does princeps senatus actually mean
    First citizen
  21. What temple / gateway did augustus close and how many times
    Janus and it was closed 3 times
  22. How many times had the temple of Janus been closed before augustus closed it
    Only twice as in paragraph 13 of the res gestae
  23. Who is a "faction"
    Mark Antony as in paragraph 1 as in paragraph 1 of the res gestae
  24. Why is Augustus' claim "at my own expense I raised an army" for Mutina open to question
    He inherited it from caesar and the funds came from the annual tribute from Asia
  25. What year did Augustus become pontifex maximus
    12BCE as in paragraph 10.2 of the res gestae
  26. Who died and enabled augustus to become pontifex maximus and how does he refer to him
    Lepudis and in paragraph 10.2 of the res gestae as "my colleague who was still alive"
  27. Why did Augutsus refuse the dictatorship
    Because he didn't want people to think of him as Caesar
  28. What year did Augustus return to rome and what was the most significant thing
    • 29BCE
    • The gates of the temple of Janus were closed
  29. What did being pontifex maximus allow him to do
    • Made him head of the priesthoods and the state religion
    • Through this he had control of political and judicial procedure
  30. What did Augustus regard as the high point of his career
    Being elected pater patrie in 2BCE
  31. How do we know Augustus highly valued being named Pater Patrie
    • Had it inscribed on the moment in the forum that year
    • He mentions it in paragraph 35 of the res Gestae
  32. What did Augustus do in 27BCE
    • He renounced all his extraordinary and temporary powers, such as Triumvir
    • He did this so he could establish a new position for himself within the senate
  33. What did Augustus belive
    That the safety and well being of the state depended upon him personally
  34. Why did the roman political system need reforming
    • In the preceeding century the senate had failed to change its methods of government and had been unable to prevent ambitious commanders and their armies from seizing control, such as pompey and marius
    • Further civil war and anarchy had to be avoided
  35. Upon reforming the system what was Augustus mindful of
    He had to remain sensitive to the needs of the senate In order to avoid the same fate as Caesar
  36. How did Octavian restore order and confidence in 29 and 28 BCE (7 things)
    • The creation of financial stability
    • Indicated that peace was to continue
    • He did not accept any exceptional honours or powers
    • Used propaganda to promote a new era of peace
    • He provided diversions and employment for the people
    • He emphasised his interest in traditional and conservative activities
    • He did not exact vengeance on enemies through proscriptions
  37. How did augustus create financial stability from 29 to 28
    • He scrupulously paid off all his debt and ignored the debt of others
    • he attempted to help rehabilitate senators who had suffered financially (suetonius tells that he gave 23 games in the name of magistrates who could not afford it)
  38. What did augustus do when he returned to rome
    He annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate
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Augustus' Honours and Constitutional Position
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