voc. history

  1. Antebellum
    Latin for "before the war"
  2. Abolitionism
    social reform movement to end slavery and the slave trade.
  3. bleeding kansas
    the violence that erupted in kansas over slaver
  4. contraband
    slaves who fled the plantations for protection behind union lines
  5. confederate states of america
    those states that seceded form the US to form a new political entity
  6. conscience whigs
    politicians who opposed the Mexican American War
  7. cotton gin
    machine used for processing cotton invented in 1783
  8. chivalry
    Code of behavior that emphasizes personal honor and male protection of female dependents
  9. expansionism
    policy of seeking land and trade beyond a countries boundaries
  10. forty-niners
    more than 80,000 settlers who descended on California as a part of the gold rush
  11. fire eaters
    Southern proslavery extremists who sought secession from the union
  12. filibuster
    strategy used in the US senate to prevent legislation from coming to a vote
  13. free soul
    congress should prohibit slavery within western territories
  14. fourierism
    movement based on the ideas of Charles Fourier
  15. free labor
    work conducted free from constraint and in accordance with the loborers personal inclinations and will
  16. factory
    manufacturing business created in the late 18th century
  17. gold rush
    an inflex of fortune seekers into an area following rumors of gold.
  18. great american desert
    name given to the drought-stricken Great Plains by Euro-Americans
  19. habeas corpus
    the constitutional right that protects citizens against arbitrary arrest and detention
  20. interstate slave trade
    slave trade between states that continued after the abolition of the Atlantic Slave Trade in 1808
  21. know-nothings
    a nativist political party that enjoyed a brief popularity in the decade before the Civil War
  22. king cotton
    used to express the dominance of cotton in the economy of the antebellum south
  23. limited liability
    contractual clause ensuring that the personal assets of shareholders con not be seized to cover the debts of a corporation
  24. industrial revolution
    industrialization caused tremendous changes in the lives and work of people in a number of regions
  25. individualism
    to describe americans as people no longer bound by social attachments to class, castes, associations, and families
  26. Mason-Dixon Line
    The surveyors' mark
  27. Mulatto
    offspring of white and blacks
  28. miscegenation
    sexual mixing of the races, especially whites (male) and black (females)
  29. mechanics
    a class of skilled craftsmen and inventors who built and improved machinery
  30. mormonism
    religion founded by joseph smith in 1830
  31. manifest destiny
    to express the popular 19th century belief that the US was destined to expand westward
  32. market revolution
    combined impact of the rapidly increasing production of goods and the development of a transportation network to distribute them.
  33. promontory point
    site in Utah where the railway lines built by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific met.
  34. popularity sovereignty
    pre-civil war idea that the residents of a territory should determine, through their legislatures, whether to allow slavery
  35. planters
    owners of large forms that were worked by 20+ slaves
  36. perfectionism
    Christian movement that believed people could achieve moral perfection in their earthly lines
  37. phalanxes
    utopian cooperative work groups that organized as part of the Fourierist movement
  38. polygamy
    practice of a man having multiple wifes
  39. sectionalism
    concern only for the interests of one part of a country
  40. secession
    a states withdrawal from the union
  41. Scott vs Sanford
    1857 supreme court case ruling that no black person, slave or free could claim citizenship rights
  42. shakers
    religious group derived from the quakers that followed the vision of "Mother Ann"
  43. squatter
    someone who settles on land he or she doesnt own
  44. steam engine
    invention of the industrial revolution that harnessed mechanical energy from high-pressure steam
  45. transcontinental railroad line
    means of transportation that connected the eastern US with the state of California and other territories in the west
  46. task system
    system of labor in which a slave was assigned a daily task to complete and allowed to do as he wished upon its completion
  47. telegraph
    an electrical were to transmit messages over a long distance
  48. temperance movement
    movement to end drunkenness that urged people to abstain from the consumption of alcohol
  49. transcendentalism
    movement that believed individuals should look within themselves for truth and guidance
  50. upper south
    8 northern most southern states
  51. utopians
    communities founded by reformers and transcendentalists
  52. westward expansion
    Americans' settlement westward, in the 19th century
  53. whigs
    in the US, and political party that began in 1834 with the opponents of Andrew Jackson
  54. yeoman
    farmer who owned a small plot of land sufficient to support a family
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voc. history