Ch1_Ankle and Foot

  1. Osteology and arthrology of ankle and foot.
    • Talocrural
    • Subtalar
    • Talo­ calcaneonavicular
    • Calcaneocuboid
    • Transverse tarsal
    • Tarsometatarsal
    • Metatarsophalangeal
    • Inter­ phalangeal
  2. Talocrural joint - Ankle mortise formed by three components:
    • Distal end of tibia and its medial malleo­lus
    • Lateral malleolus of fibula and inferior transverse tibiofibular ligament
    • Troch­lear surface of talus
  3. Three articulations involved in the talocrural joint:
    • Tibiofibular
    • Tibiotalar
    • Fibulotalar
  4. Transversely (medial/lateral), trochlear surface is gently _____.
  5. Trochlear surface is _______ shaped, wider _____ than _______.
    • Wedge
    • Anteriorly than posteriorly.
  6. Laterally, talus is _____ shaped and ______ in superior/inferior direction.
    • Triangular
    • Concave
  7. Laterally talus is ______ in anterior/posterior direction.
  8. Lateral part of talus articulates with what?
    Articulates with reciprocally curved fibula
  9. Medial part of trochlear surface is _______.
    Compara­tively flat
  10. Medial part of talus articulates with what?
    Distal end of tibia, which is also flat
  11. Subtalar joint has two separate articulations:
    Anterior and posterior talocalcaneal
  12. Posterior talocalcaneal articulation (subtalar joint proper): posterior superior articulation is convex in what direction?
    Anterior/poste­rior direction
  13. Posterior talocalcaneal articulation is concave in what direction?
    Medial/ lateral direction
  14. Posterior talocalcaneal articulation articulates with reciprocally curved posterior part of what?
    Infe­rior surface of talus
  15. Anterior talocalcaneal articulation consists of obliquely oriented surfaces of:
    Biconvex inferior surface of neck/head of talus, resting on the biconcave anterior surface of calcaneus.
  16. Anterior talocalca­neal articulation, when described func­tionally, also includes:
    Posterior surface of navicular bone, which articulates with head of talus.
  17. Anterior talocalca­neal articulation joint is properly referred to as:
    Talocalcaneonavicular joint
  18. Talonavicular joint - Biconvex head of talus articulates with biconcavity, formed by:
    Posterior navicular surfaces and upper edge of plantar calcaneo­-navicular ligament
  19. Head of talus is what shape?
  20. Calcaneocuboid joint - Anterior calcaneus is concave in what direction?
  21. Calcaneocuboid joint - Anterior calcaneus is convex in what direction?
  22. Poste­rior cuboid is concave in what direction?
  23. Poste­rior cuboid is convex in what direction?
  24. Bony prominence on ______ surface of cuboid articulates with inferior surface of calcaneus, making saddle shape deeper.
  25. What bone is the key to lateral arch?
  26. Tarsometatarsal joints - Proximally:
    3 cuneiforms medially and cuboid laterally.
  27. Tarsometatarsal joints - Distally:
    Bases of 5 meta­tarsals
  28. 1st metatarsal (MT) is ____ and ______, 2nd MT is ______.
    • Largest and strongest
    • Longest
  29. 3rd MT articulates primarily with what?
    3rd cuneiform
  30. 4th and 5th MT articulate with what?
  31. Cuneonavicular joint - ____ anterior surface of navicular has ____ facets to articulate with ______ poste­rior surfaces of cuneiform bones.
    • Biconvex
    • 3
    • Concave
  32. Metatarsalphalangeal joint - Metatarsal heads are ____ and proximal phalanges are ______.
    • Convex
    • Concave
  33. Interphalangeal joints - same as what?
    Fingers of hand
  34. Muscles of ankle:
    • Ankle PF:
    • Ankle DF:
    • Everters:
    • Inverters:
    • Intrinsics:
  35. Noncontractile structures of ankle:
    • Ligaments: deltoid, anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular, calca­ neofibular, calcaneonavicular [spring ligament], interosseous, bifurcate, plantaraponeu­rosis, long plantar and short plantar liga­ment
    • Capsule
    • Bursae
    • Fascia
    • Nerves, and vessels
  36. Talocrural joint. Fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane strengthened by what ligaments??
    Collat­eral, anterior, and posterior ligaments
  37. Talocrural joint - is thin in what direction?
    Anteriorly and posteriorly
  38. Talocrural joint - is thickened in what direction?
    Thickened laterally
  39. Subtalar joint - Posterior articulation has an _____ capsule with synovial membrane.
  40. Subtalar joint - Anterior articulation has capsule with synovial membrane that includes what other joint?
    Talo­navicular joint
  41. Talonavicular joint - Fibrous capsule with synovial lining is shared with what joint?
    Anterior subtalar joint
  42. Calcaneocuboid - Independent fibrous capsule with synovial membrane:
    Independ­ent from other tarsal articulations.
  43. Tarsometatarsal has how many capsular cavities?
  44. 1st MT capsule with:
    Medial cuneiform
  45. 2nd and 3rd cuneiform capsule is contin­uous with:
    Intercuneiform and cuneona­vicular joint cavity
  46. 3rd cuneiform with base of 4th MT capsule encloses:
    4th MT with cuboid and 3rd cuneiform
  47. Cuneonavicular capsule - what other joints?
    Continuous with those of intercuneiforrn and cuneocuboid joints, as is its synovial cavity.
  48. Capsule is connected to ____ cuneometatarsal joints between _____ metatarsal bones.
    • 2nd and 3rd
    • 2nd and 4th
  49. Metatarsalphalangeal joint - Fibrous capsule present for:
    Each articulation
  50. Interphalangeal joints - Fibrous capsule present for:
    Each articulation
  51. Ligaments of Talocrural joint:
    • Medial collateral ligament (deep fibers)
    • Medial collateral ligament (superficial fibers)
    • Lateral collateral ligament
  52. Medial collateral ligament (deep fibers) consists of what ligaments?
    Anterior talotibial ligament and posterior talotibial ligament
  53. Medial collateral ligament (superficial fibers) consists of what ligaments?
    Deltoid ligament
  54. Lateral collateral ligament consists of what ligaments?
    • Anterior talofibular ligament
    • Calcaneofibular liga­ment
    • Posterior talofibular ligament
  55. Ligaments of Subtalar joint:
    • Interosseous talocalcaneal: two fibrous bands
    • Lateral talocalcaneal
    • Posterior talocalcaneal
    • Medial talocalcaneal
  56. Interosseous talocalcaneal ligament is taut with?
  57. Ligaments of Talonavicular joint:
    • Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (spring ligament).
    • Dorsal talonavicular ligament.
  58. Ligaments of Calcaneocuboid joint:
    • Medial band of bifurcate ligament (lateral calcaneonavicular ligament)
    • Lateral band of bifurcated ligament (medial calcaneocuboid ligament)
    • Superficial plantar calcaneocuboid ligament (long plantar ligament)
    • Plantar calcaneocuboid ligament (short plantarligament)
  59. Medial band of bifurcate ligament comes from what other ligament?
    Lateral calcaneonavicular ligament
  60. Lateral band of bifurcated ligament comes from what other ligament?
    Medial calcaneocuboid ligament
  61. Superficial plantar calcaneocuboid ligament comes from what other ligament?
    Long plantar ligament
  62. Plantar calcaneocuboid ligament (comes from what other ligament?
    Short plantarligament
  63. Ligaments of Tarsometatarsal joint - Medially, dorsal ligament runs from where to where?
    Medial cuneiform to base of second MT
  64. Ligaments of Tarsometatarsal joint - Laterally, dorsal ligaments with straight fibers run from where to where?
    • Middle cuneiform to 2nd MT
    • Lateral cuneiform to 3rd MT
    • Cruci­ate fibers from lateral cuneiform to 2nd MT
    • Middle cuneiform to 3rd MT
  65. Ligaments of Cuneonavicular joint consist of:
    3 dorsal cuneonavicular ligaments, one attached to each cuneiform.
  66. Plantar ligaments of Cuneonavicular joint have similar attach­ments to dorsal ones and receive slips from what muscle?
    Tendons of posterior tibialis muscle
  67. Ligaments of Metatarsalphalangeal joint:
    Plantar liga­ments and collateral ligaments present
  68. Ligaments of Interphalangeal joints:
    Plantar ligaments and collateral ligaments present
  69. Plantar fascia - Also known as:
    Plantar aponeurosis
  70. Plantar fascia is a broad, dense band of longitudinally arranged collagen fibers that can be divided into:
    3 components
  71. The 3 compartments of plantar fascia run from where to where?
    Running from medial calcaneus to phalanges
  72. Fascia tightens with what action?
    DF of MTP joints as occurs during push off.
  73. Tightening of the plantar fascia during push off is also known as:
    "windlass effect"
  74. Tightening of plantar fascia causes what action at calcaneus? and what action at subtalar joint, which creates a rigid lever for push off.
    • Supination
    • Inver­sion
  75. Bursa of foot:
    • Posterior calcaneal
    • Retrocalcaneal
  76. Blood supply comes from:
    Malleolar rami of anterior tibial and fibular arteries.
  77. Articular innervation comes from:
    Deep fibular and tibial nerves
  78. Talocrural joint - Conjunct rotations - Talus rotates ____ from DF to PF.
    Medially 30°
  79. When foot is PF, what other motions are permitted at talocrural joint?
    Slight side­ to-side gliding, rotation, and ABD/ADD
  80. Open chain at talocrural joint: During PF talus:
    Anterior glides on mortise with slight medial rotation or ADD.
  81. Closed chain at talocrural joint: During PF tibia:
    Glides posteriorly on talus with slight lateral rotation.
  82. Subtalar joint axis: oblique axis extends from where to where?
    Posterior, plantar, and lateral to anterior, dorsal, and medial
  83. Subtalar joint is oriented obliquely, with the average at how many degrees from horizontal and how many from midline of foot?
    42° from the horizontal and 16° from midline of foot
  84. With a high inclination of axis, movement at subtalar joint is _______ in transverse plane
  85. With a high inclination of axis, movement at subtalar joint is _______ in frontal plane
  86. With a low inclination of axis, movement at subtler joint will be more frontal plane dominant, leading to:
    Greater calcaneal pronation/supina­tion
  87. Conjunct rotation at subtler joint - Calcaneus can move in many directions, due to its multiple articulations:
    It can rotate around a vertical axis, tilt medially and laterally, glide anteriorly and posteriorly.
  88. Arthokinematics and osteokinematics of subtler joint occur in _____ direction when mobi­lizing calcaneus on a fixed talus.
  89. Subta­lar joint represents the purest of what type of movement?
  90. Open chain of Subta­lar joint: During inversion, calca­neus moves into:
    • ADD, supination, and PF on fixed talus.
    • Ever­sion occurs as a reciprocally opposite motion.
  91. Closed chain of Subta­lar joint: During inversion, calcaneus:
    Supina­tes (talus guides laterally) with ABD and DF of talus. Produces ER of tibia.
  92. Eversion at subtalar joint produces what motion at tibia?
  93. Talonavicular joint - Arthokinematics and osteokinematics occur in ______ direction when mobiliz­ing navicular on a fixed talus.
  94. Rotational movements of midtarsal joint allow what?
    Fore­ foot to twist on rearfoot
  95. Talus and navic­ular in Talonavicular joint: rotate in _____ directions.
  96. Open chain of Talonavicular joint: During inversion, navicular does what?
    • PF, ADD, and ER on talus.
    • Eversion occurs as a reciprocally opposite motion.
  97. Closed chain of Talonavicular joint: During inversion, navicu­lar does what?
    • PF (talus glides dorsally on navicular), ADD (talus abducts), and IR.
    • Eversion occurs as a reciprocally opposite motion .
  98. MTPs and PIPs are same or opposite as fingers?
Card Set
Ch1_Ankle and Foot
Functional Anatomy and Biomechanics