Adaptive Immunity

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  1. Humoral Immunity
    • Produced by B lymphocytes
    • Can be produced somewhere else but can still attack things far away, doesn't have to be close contact
  2. Cellular Immunity
    • Targets your cells gone wild (t cells)
    • Only cell to cell contact, T cell shave to be in close contact
  3. Antigens
    • Substances that can mobilize the immune system and provoke an immune response.
    • Helps distinguish self from nonself
  4. Complete antigens
    • Have immunogenicity
    • Have reactivity
  5. Immunogenicity
    Ability to stimulate formation of specific lymphocytes and antibody production
  6. Haptens
    Small molecules that are reactive but not immunogenic unless attached to a protein carrier
  7. Self antigens: MHC proteins
    • Not foreign to us but is foreign to others
    • MHC 1 and MHC 2
  8. MHC proteins
    • Major histocompatability complex
    • Group of glycoproteins that mark a cell as self
  9. MHC 1
    Proteins are found on virtually all body cells except blood cells and interact with killer T cells
  10. MHC 2
    Proteins that are found only on certain cells that act in the immune response and interact with helper T cells
  11. Antigen presenting cells (APC)
    Does not respond to specific antigens but presents the antigen to the T cell
  12. Lymphocytes
    Originate from hematopoietic stem cells (adult stem cells) in red bone marrow
  13. Immunocompetent
    Able to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
  14. T cells
    • Cell to cell, cannot travel through body (cell mediated)
    • Formed in the thymus 2-3days
  15. B cells
    • Can travel through body (humoral immunity)
    • Made in the bone marrow
  16. Negative selection
    Lymphocytes that strongly attack self-antigens and are destroyed in the thymic medullla
  17. Positive selection
    Weakly anti-self continue to develop and the ones that can best recognize self when attached to antigens are identified.
  18. Anergy
    Negative selection for B cells
  19. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs
    • Primary = thymus and bone marrow
    • Secondary = all other lymphoid organs
  20. Primary immune response
    Cellular proliferation and differentiation upon initial exposure to antigen
  21. Secondary immune response
    • Re-exposure to the same antigen
    • Faster, stronger, last longer, bind better
  22. Active humoral immunity
    • When B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies against them
    • (When your body is making them)
    • Naturally - obtained by exposure¬†
    • Artificially - obtained from vaccines
  23. Passive humoral immunity
    Antibodies are harvested from the serum of an immune human or animal donor.
  24. Antibodies
    • Called immunoglobulins
    • Can fix and activate complement, circulate in the blood, can be found in body secretions etc
  25. CD4 cells
    Are helper T cells (Th)
  26. CD8 Cells
    Are cytotoxic, killer T cells (Tc)
  27. T cell activation
    Involves two steps antigen binding and co-stimulations
  28. MHC restrictions
    Preference for certain classes of MHC proteins
  29. Immunological surveillance
    When a T cell crawls over other cells in search of antigens that they might recognize
  30. Co-stimulation
    • Approval code
    • T cell recognizing a costimulatory signal before it can make a clone.
    • Required to make clones of T cells
  31. Autografts
    Tissue grafts transplanted from one body site to another in the same person
  32. Isografts
    • Grafts donated by genetically identical individuals
    • ONLY identical twin or clone
  33. Allografts
    Grafts transplanted from individuals that are not genetically identical but belong to the same species
  34. Xenografts
    Grafts take from another animal species
  35. Immuno-deficiencies
    Congenital and acquired conditions in which the production or function of immune cells, phagocytes, and complement is abdnomral
  36. Autoimmune disease
    When the body produces antibodies and killer T cells that destroy its own tissues
  37. Multiple sclerosis (MS)
    Destroys the white matter of the brain and spinal cord
  38. Myasthenia gravis
    Impairs communication between nerves and skeletal muscle
  39. Graves' disease
    Prompts the thyroid gland to produce excessive amounts of thyroxine
  40. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    Systemic disease that affects the kidneys, heart, lungs, and skin
  41. Glomerulonephritis
    Severe impairment of renal function
  42. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    Systematically destroys joints
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Adaptive Immunity
Adaptive Immunity
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