Psychology week 1 - Chapter 1

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  1. Mind body problem is:
    The question of how mental and physical events interact
  2. Bio-psychology examines what:
    The physical bases of psychological phenomena such as motivation, emotion and stress
  3. Psychology is defined as:
    Scientific investigation of mental processes (thinking, remembering and feeling
  4. Cross-cultural psychoogy is
    distinguishing between universal psychological processes from those that are specific to particular cultures
  5. Two prominent early schools of thought were:
    and define them
    • structuralism = uncovers the basic elements of unconsciousness through introspection
    • and functionalism = explains psychological processes in terms of the role or function they serve
  6. Free will or determinism refer to
    whether we freely choose our actions or whether our behaviour is determines by things outside of our control
  7. Who founded the first psychological laboratory and when:
    Wilhelm Wunat in 1879
  8. Who was the founder of functionalism
    Edward Titchener
  9. specialised areas of psychology include:
    • developmental
    • social
    • clinical
    • cognitive
    • health
    • forensic
    • sports psychology
  10. psychodynamic perspective relies on 3 key premises:
    • peoples actions are determined by the way thoughts, feelings and wishes are connected in their minds
    • many of these mental processes occur outside the consciousness
    • mental processes may conflict with each other
  11. Behaviourist perspective
    focuses on the way objects or events in the environment come to control our behaviour through learning
  12. Behaviour can be controlled by :
    (behaviourists perspective)
    environmental consequences that either increase (reinforcement) or decrease (punishment) the likelihood of that behaviour occurring again

    B.F Skinner
  13. Humanistic Perspective is that
    people are all individuals and unique and trying to reach their full potential by goal directed choices that leads them to self-actualisation.

    Carl Rogers emphasised this
  14. Cognitive Perspective:
    focuses on the way people perceive, process and retrieve information
  15. evolutionary perspective:
    argues that many behavioural tendencies in humans - from the need to eat, to the concern to our children has evolved to help our ancestors survive and have healthy offspring
  16. evolutionary psychologists support what?
    • Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection.
    • and that the most adaptive behavioural traits are those that helped our ancestors adjust and survive in their environment
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Psychology week 1 - Chapter 1
psychology exam preparation
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