Chapter 16: Segregation and Discrimination, p.492-497

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  1. How were African Americans kept from voting? (2 distinct ways)
    • -By limiting the vote to people who could read, and required registration officials to administer a literacy test to test reading.
    • -Also the requirement of poll tax.
    • -Blacks trying to vote were often asked more difficult questions than whites, or given a test in a foreign language.
  2. Explain the "grandfather clause".
    The "grandfather clause" stated that even if a man had failed the literacy test or could not afford the poll tax, he was still entitled to vote if he, his father, or his grandfather had been eligible to vote before January 1st, 1867
  3. Why where the poll taxes and the grandfather clause allowed even though they blatantly violated civil rights laws?
    Because during the 1870's and 1880's, the Supreme Court failed to overturn the poll tax or the grandfather clause.
  4. Explain segregation.
    Laws to separate white and black people in public and private facilities
  5. What was the slang term for segregation?
    Jim Crow
  6. After reading the embarrassingly short blurb about Plessy v Ferguson on page 493, go to page 496 and read the text in the yellow box through the short paragraph of "Legal Reasoning." Now, in your own words, explain Plessy v Ferguson.
    A stepping stone to led Congress to make the decision to legalize segregation.
  7. What was the effect of the Supreme Court's decision in the Plessy v Ferguson case?
    • -It establishes the separate-but-equal doctrine.
    • -These laws ended up limiting African Americans' access to most public facilities, including restaurants, schools, and hospitals.
  8. Explain "racial etiquette."
    • -Regulated relationships between whites and blacks (informal rules).
    • -Usually these customs belittled and humiliated African Americans , enforcing their second-class status.
    • -For example, blacks and whites never shook hands, since shaking hands would have implied equality. Blacks had to yield the sidewalk to white pedestrians, and black men had to remove their hats.
  9. What happened to people who rejected racial etiquette?
    • -Would face severe punishment or death.
    • -Blacks who were accused of violating the etiquette were lynched
  10. What was "debt peonage"? Who was affected by it? Connect debt peonage to two other similar tactics used by Americans to oppress minorities (think back to previous units).
    • -Was a system that bound laborers into slavery in order to work off a debt to the employer. 
    • -This is similar to sharecropping and Vagrancy codes.
    • -The Supreme Court didn't rule that this was illegal until 1911.
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Chapter 16: Segregation and Discrimination, p.492-497
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