Nutrition ch 3

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  1. which of the following substances increases the amount of glucose available in the blood?
    Norepinephrine, Glucagon , Epinephrine
  2. Pituitary gland secretes what
    growth hormone
  3. pancreas secretes what?
    Insulin and glucagon
  4. Thyroid gland secrets what?
    Thyroid hormone
  5. Adrenal glands secrets what?
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  6. Epinephrine targets where?
    heart, blood vessels, brain and lungs
  7. Insulin targets what?
    adipose tissue and muscle cells
  8. Growth hormone targests what?
    most cells
  9. ____ immunity does not require a previous encounter with a pathogen
    Non specific
  10. Identify the nutrients that play a role in immune health
    Vitamin B12, Folate and Vitamin A
  11. An individual and HIV and incresed risk of food borne illness, famine and increased rate of infections, impaired wound healing due to citamin c deficiency are all part of nutritional staus that affects...
    immune system
  12. immunoglobulins are also known as ..
  13. A deficiency of __ ___ __ negatively affects skin health.
    niacin, essential fatty acids, zinc
  14. Bacterial eye infections are common in developing countries , often as a result of a deficiency of which nutrient?
  15. Intestinal cells form an important barrier to invading microorganisms by 1. 2. 3.
    Forming a mucosal layer, producing immunoglobulins, being packed closely together
  16. In the intestinal cells, what binds to invading microorganisms and prevents them from entering the bloodstream
  17. Diarrheal disease can result from deficiencies of...
    • Protein, zinc and vitamin a
    • this worsens nutritional status
  18. True or false : adequate nutrition is necessary to protect the health of the intestinal tract
  19. ____ is a packaging site for proteins used in the cytoplasm or exported from the cell
    The Golgi Complex
  20. enzymes are made of
  21. Lingual Lipase and Salivary amylase are two components of the liquid called___, which is produced by glands in the mouth
  22. Lymph contains what three parts?
    Plasma, dietary fats, white blood cells
  23. Vitamins and minerals suppport metabolism by..
    contributing to enzyme activity
  24. when a nutrient requires a carrier protein and energy in order to be absorbed, this is called
    active absorption
  25. which of the following are involuntary processes? chewing, absorption, breathing, swallowing?
    absorption, breathing
  26. the primary treatment for gallstones is
    surgical removal of the gallbladder
  27. In contrast to the small intestine, the large intestine...
    lacks villi, has increased bacterial action, lacks digestive enzymes     (the large intestine is NOT longer in length)
  28. what are the main organelles?
    Nucleus, Mitochondrion, Lysosomes, Perioxisomes, Rough/Smooth ER, Cell Membrane, golgi aparatus
  29. The large intestine primary absorbes...
    potassium and sodium
  30. The stomach primary absorbes
    some alcohol ( about 20%)
  31. The small intestine primarily absorbes
    glucose, vitamins, bile acids
  32. List the organs of digestive tract in order, from start to finish.
    Mouth, Esophagus, stomach , small intestine, large intestine.
  33. Hepatic refers to what?
    Liver(part of the digestive system
  34. List the main organ systems
    cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, lymphatic, nervous,
  35. List the necessary nutrients to protect the health of the intestinal tract.
    Folate, Vitamin c, protein
  36. The chemical breakdown of starch that occurs in the mouth is due to the enzyme action of ..
  37. Pepsin breaks down...
  38. Identify the organs that work together to maintain the acid-base balance of the blood
    • lungs
    • kidneys
  39. name roles of the endocrine system
    • maintain water balance
    • produce hormones
    • plays a mojor role in the regulation of metabolism
  40. Fat-soluble nutrients are absorbed into the
    Lymphatic system.
  41. Norepinephrine is..
    • involved in hunger regulation,
    • released in times of stress,
    • a hormone
  42. Kidneys, bladder, ureters make up the .... system
  43. why would drinking milk and cream not be good treatment for the relief of ulcer pain
    Calcium in milk and cream stimulates acid production
  44. There is very little absorption of nutrients in the stomach except for some...
  45. What cellualar structure houses DNA
  46. The large vein that carries blood containig absorbed nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract directly to the liver for metabolism before nutrients are circulated to the rest of the body is known as...
    Portal circulation
  47. Increasing fiber and fluid consumption is adequate to correct mild cases of
  48. Two organs the produce most of the digestive enzymes
    Pancreas and the small intestine
  49. ___ are the chemical messengers of the boyd
  50. True of False: Hormones are available only to certain receptor proteins
  51. Carbohydrates three main functions?
    Cell to celll communication, immune defense, cellular identity
  52. Transporting absorbed nutrients to the liver to be processed before being released into the general bloodstream is referred to as
    portal circulation
  53. The brain relies on __for energy
  54. The excahnge of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the blood and the cells throughout the body occurs accross the cells lining the....
  55. The role of benefical bacteria in the large intetine is to ...
    • metabolize undigested food
    • make vitamin k and biotin
  56. Identify genetic variations that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    A delay in the removal of cholesterol from the blood, high levels of homocysteine in the blood
  57. True or false: for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, insoluble fiber is more effective than soluble fiber.
  58. ___ metabolism can take place in the cytoplasm of the cell,
  59. ___ metabolism take place in the mitochondria
  60. Peroxisomes contain the enzyme __ which neutralizes hydrogen peroxide in the cell.
  61. What type of nutrients are absorbed into the hepatic portal vein and eventually to the liver before they enter the general circulation
    Water-soluble vitamins
  62. __ soluble nutrients enter the lymph system whereas __ soluble nutrients enter portal circulation
    fat / water
  63. A compartment, particle, or filament that performs a specialized function whitin a cell is an
  64. what are funcions of the cardiovascular system?
    • Deilvering hormones to target cells
    • distributing nutrients
    • facilitating the exchange of oxygen
  65. Amylase is the enzyme needed to digest....
  66. Bile is stored in the
  67. The site of most nutrient absorption is in the
    Small intestine.
  68. True or flase: the cell membrane is a lipid bilayer of phospholipids
  69. what are functions of the urinary system?
    • maintating proper fluid balance
    • removing unneeded substances from the blood
  70. Enterohepatic circulation refers to the absorption of components of.... follwed by
    bile from the small intestine, follwed by transport via the portal vein to the liver
  71. Act that banned increases in insurance based on genes
    Genetic information nondiscrimination act
  72. The storage form of glucose in the body is
  73. Hormones bind to a receptor on a ___ target tissue
  74. Hormones act on target tissues that are ___ from the site of hormone production in the body
  75. Hormones are
    chemical messengers
  76. People with ulcers shoudl refrain from the use of NSAIDS because the reduce the ___ secreted by the stomach
  77. In those with celiac disease, exposure to ___ causes the villi of the small intestine to flatten
  78. The junction between the lymphatic system and the cardiovascular system is located near the
  79. T/F: cells need water, building supplies, and chemical regualtors to function properly
  80. waves of muscular contractions that propel food along the gastrointestinal tract are called
  81. ___ are organelles that digest worn-out or damaged cell components
  82. Identify the roles that protein plays in the cell maembrane
    It provides structural support for the cell membrane, it is a gatekeeper for what flows in and out of the cell, it catayzes chemical reactiosn
  83. Nutrition therapy for mild cases of constipation includes
    heavy drinking of fluids, consuming more fiber daily
  84. The processs of using the instructions cntained the RNA to synthesize a new protein on a ribsosome is called
  85. Which of the follwing accessory organs stores bile?
  86. compartment, particle or filament, performs a specialized function describes what?
  87. Large dosages of vitamin 1 ( more thatn 3 times the RDA)
    can cause harmful side effects,
  88. ___ is a segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein
    A gene
  89. The circulation of water-soluble nutrients from the GI tract to the liver is via the
    hepaticportal vein
  90. Identify grains that should be eliminated from the diet of someone with celiac disease.
    • Wheat, Rye
    • (rice and tapioca are ok)
  91. The contraction of muscles in the esophagus is called
    peristalisis ( same as large intestine)
  92. Which type of tissue allows secretion absorption and exretion??
  93. Tendons and cartilage are made of what kind of tissue?
  94. If the diet is lacking in a specific nutrient, it will....
    Break down tissue that contain a high concentration of the nutrient.
  95. The lining of the stomach is protected from the acidic environment by...
    a mucus lining
  96. which organ secretes bicarbonate into the small intestine to neutralize chyme as it moves from the stomach into the small intestine?
  97. Facilitated diffusion
    nutrients require a carrier protein
  98. passive diffusion
    nutrients move from an area of higher concentration to one of a lower concentration
  99. active absorption
    nutrients require both a carrier protein and energy
  100. In order for the nutrients from the foods we eat to be utilized, they must first be
  101. The main function of the lower esophageal sphincter is to
    prevent the backflow of GI traact contents (puke0
  102. The intestinalcells are involved in immune defenses because they
    form a barrier against pathogens, produce immunoglobulins
  103. A genogram (family tree) can be useful for assessing your risk for which of the following conditions? osteoporosis, breast cancer cardiovascular disease, influenza
    osteoporosis, breast cance, cardiovascular disease
  104. How fiber works in reducing constipation 1.2.3.
    fiber stimulates perstalsis by drawing water into the large intestine.
  105. irritable bowel syndrome is more common in younger men/women
  106. ___ plays a role in the formation of the myelin sheath
    Vitamin b12
  107. order of three parts of GI tract
    duodenum jejunum ileum
  108. Calcium is stored in..
  109. glucose is stored in
    muscle and liver
  110. fat is stored in
    adipose tissue
  111. What two hormones increase blood glucose?
    Glucagon, Epinephrine
  112. The contents of the stomach pass thorugh the pyloric sphincter at the rate of a ___ at a time
  113. what substance is necessary for the body to absorb citamin b 12?
    The intrinsic factor
  114. T/F Only the enzymes form the digestive system are made of protein
    F all enzymes are made of protien
  115. one substance responsible for the digestion and absorptionof  fat in the small intesitine is
  116. Most of the digestive and absorptive processes are
  117. List three organs that are important parts of the digetive system even though they do not com in direct contact with food mater in the gastrointestinal tract
    Gall baldder, pancreas liver
  118. t/R nutritional status has no effect on organ function
  119. During the depolarization phase of nerve impulse transmission, ___ ions flow into the neuron and ___ ions flow out of the neuron.
    Sodium; potassium
  120. An example of a probiotic food would be
    Buttermilk, yogurt
  121. large dietary fats are absorbed from the small intestine into the
    Lymph, ( small dietary fast an dwatersoluble nutrients are absorbed into the portal vein
  122. in the liver and muscle cells, glycogen is the short-term storage form of
  123. During protein synthesis, RNA is translated by the____
  124. the large intestine can absorb remaining
    sodium, potassium, water, some fatty acids and gases
  125. Gall stones may develop during rapid weight loss or prolonged fasting due to the
    Liver undrproducing bile, liver secreting more cholesterol into the bile
  126. The heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins make up what system
  127. The genetic information nondiscrimination act of 2008
    prohibts health insurers from using the results of genetic teting to raise premiums or deny coverage
  128. During the process of transcription
    the DNA code is copied to RNA
  129. T/R: located in the cytoplasm, the endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubes that are continuous with the outer membrane of the ell nucleus.
  130. In someone with cystic fibrosis , fat digestion is impaired due to
    Blocked pancreatic ducts, and limited secretions of enzymes from the pancreas
  131. as a signal is transmitted along a neuron, there is a net loss of ___ from the neuron
  132. which nutrients are absorbed from the lumen of the small intestine via active absorption?
    glucose, amino acids
  133. Lipids are absorbed via
    passive diffusion
  134. which of the following nutrients are absorbed directly into the blood and transported by the hepatic portal vein to the liver?
    Monosaccharides, vitamin c, amino acids
  135. Sue has type 1 diabetes and takes daily insuilin injections.. this means there is a breakdown in which system?
  136. Nutrigenomics focuses on the interactions between
    Nutrion and gene expression (genetics)
  137. ___ bind to invading microorganisms and prevent them from entering the bloodstream
  138. T/F nutrition influences gene expression
  139. Which yields energy? Fat minerals vitamins carbs protein
    fat carbs protein
  140. the __ within the phagocyte is responsible for the ultimate digestion fo the invading antigen
  141. The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are part of the digestive system but are considered to be___ structures
  142. Three functions of epithelial tissues are to
    secrete subsatances, absorb nutrients, excrete waste
  143. T/F: carbohydrates on cell membranes are involved inthe identification of cells by the immune sytem
  144. The endocrine system is related to nutrition through
    The effects of hormones on appetite and blood glucose regulation
  145. A protease assists in the digestion of which macronutrient?
  146. T/F peptic ulcers occur only in the stomach
  147. Two common results of undernutrition as related to an impaired immune system include
    diarrhea, bacterial infections in blood
  148. The initail phase of energy metabolism begins in the
  149. which of the folling are componets of blood
    red blood cells, white blood cells plasma
  150. the digesting food remains in the stomach for approximately
    1-4 hours
  151. During the process of gene expression, after RNA transcribes the DNA code
    RNA moves from nucleus to cytoplasm to ER
  152. Identify the nutrients that are absorbed via passive diffusion
    • fats
    • water
  153. which of the follwing occurs when a person with heartburn takes an atacid?
    • The acidity of stomach contents is reduced
    • antacids act to neutralize the acidic contents o fthe stomach but they do not supress acid production by stomach cells
  154. ___ is the storage form of glucose in the body
  155. The primary site for storage of fat is the
    adipose tissue
  156. Chyme is formed in the
  157. the 5 primar taste senstations are sweet, sour, salty, bitter and
    umami ( savory brothy or meaty taste)
  158. Soluble fiber is ___ efective than insoluble fiber
  159. Insulin lowers blood glucose by
    promoting the uptake of glucose into body cells
  160. treatment for cystic fibrosis includes the provision of digestive __ in capsule form
  161. Carbohydrates can be stored for a short time in the
    Muscles and liver
  162. overconsumption of some nutrients maybe harmful becasue some might be
    overly stored
  163. Self-contained , living structures that join together to form tissues are
  164. The __ system is an example of an organ system
  165. Development of __ cancer is strongly influced by genetics
  166. during gene expression, translation takes place in the
  167. These nutrients can be absorbed by the cells lining the stomach
    alcohol and water
  168. the villi facilitate absorptionof nutrients in the small intestine by
    increasing the surface area
  169. Identify causes of Hemorrhoids
    Pregnancy and obesity, straining during bowel movements/ added stress to the veins of the rectum and anus
  170. Name the high - engergy compound generated by the metabolism of carbohydrates, fasts, and proteins in the cells
  171. Which of the following are functions of the lymphatic system?
    Transport of absorbed dietary fast/ returns fluid that collects between cells back to the bloodstream / defense of the body against invading pathogens
  172. Filtering the blood is a function of the...
  173. Gene
    segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein
  174. chromosome
    molecule of DNA and protein
  175. "heartburn"doesn't involve the heart at all: it is a pain in the chest caused by
    reflux of highly acidic stomach contents into the esphagus
  176. which of the following are functions of the nervous system?
    Controls intellectual functioning/ detects sensations/ directs movemenss
  177. Chyme is formed in the ___ as fod is mixed with digestive secretions
  178. long term use of antibiotics can kill the bacteria in the large intestine, therby leading to
    Vitamin K deficiency
  179. __is achieved when certain immune cells recognize foreign cells and directly attack and destroy them
    Cell - mediated immunity
  180. Most ulcers are now attributed to infection with H.pylori,. other risk factors that may contribute to the development of an ulcer include
    stress, smokin, heavy use of NSAIDS
  181. how are nutrition and genetics linked
    nutrients affect gene expression, genes influence development of some nutritional diseases, genes determine nutrient requirements
  182. Identify the part of the cell responsible for genetically controlling the actions that occur in the cell.
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Nutrition ch 3
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