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  1. Describe the basic reflexes of a neonate - what are their functions?
    • - Grasping reflex : press an object in the neonate's palms and they will grasp it with surprising strength. Aids in the survival to avoid falling.
    • - Rooting reflex : when touched on the cheeks, they will turn towards the finger as if searching for something.
    • - Sucking reflex : helps obtain needed food. 
    • - Moro reflex : is position is changed abruptly or if she is startled by a loud noise, she will make a hugging motion.
  2. Describe what we know a neonate understand about the world and its perceptual abilities.
    • - Babies imitate adult facial gestures a early as 9 months of age. 
    • - immediately begin to look, touch, taste and explore their surroundings. 
    • - They can also determine different voices of their mother's and a stranger. 
    • - Their vision can see large patterns, shapes and edges.
  3. What is temperament?
    - the physical core of personality, including emotional and perceptual sensitivity, energy levels, typical mood, and so forth.
  4. What is attachment?
    - Emotional attachment, or close emotional bond, that babies form with their primary caregivers.
  5. Describe Harlow's monkey experiments and what they prove about contact comfort.
    • - infant monkeys : terry-cloth mother vs wire mother.
    • - Contact comfort is the pleasant, reassuring feelings infants get from touching something soft and warm, especially their mothers.
  6. What is meant by contact comfort is essential for normal development?
    - There's a sensitive period during which attachment must occur for optimal development.
  7. What is separation anxiety?
    • - a direct sign that an emotional bond has formed appears through separation anxiety (usually 8-12 months)
    • - crying and signs of feat when separated from their mothers etc.
  8. Describe the strange situation experiments of Ainsworth.
    Describe the types of emotional attachments seen in children and the behaviors of mothers and babies with these attachments.
    - the quality of attachment is revealed by how babies act when their mothers return after a brief separation. 

    • - Securely attached : have a stable and positive emotional bond. They are upset by the mothers' absence and seek to be near her when she returns. 
    • - Insecure avoidant : infants have an anxious emotional bond. They tend to turn away from the mother when she returns. 
    • - Insecure ambivalent : attachment is also an anxious emotional bond. Babies have mixed feelings : they both seek to be near the returning mother and angrily resist contact with her.
  9. What are the long-term implications for these children? 
    What does absence of any attachment do to a child?
    • - Infants who are securely attached at age 1, show more resiliency, curiosity, problem solving ability, and social skill in preschool.
    • - attachment failures can be damaging. Will wander off with strangers, anxious and remote and they don't like to be touched or make eye contact with another.
  10. Describe the various parenting styles and the outcomes for the children raised with these styles.
    • - Authoritarian parents : enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority. Children usually become obedient and self-controlled. Tend to be emotionally stiff withdrawn, apprehensive and lacking in curiosity.
    • - Overly permissive parents : give little guidance, allow too much freedom or don't hold children accountable for their actions. Produce dependent, immature children who misbehave frequently. 
    • - Authoritative parents : supply firm and consistent guidance, combined with love and affection. Produces children who are resilient, and develop the strengths they need to thrive even in difficult circumstances. They are competent, self-controlled, independent, assertive and inquiring.
  11. What are the stages of cognitive development?
    • - The Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years) : "Stage go intellectual development during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated." They lack image permanence, an understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight. Mainly will be concerned with learning to coordinate information from her senses with her motor movements. 
    • - The Preoperational stage (2-7 years) : "Period of intellectual development during which children begin to use language and thin symbolically, yet remain intuitive and egocentric in their thought." Can form mental images or ideas, they cannot easily transform those images or ideas in their minds. Egocentric stage. 
    • - The Concrete operational stage (7-11) : "Period of intellectual development during which children become able to use the concepts of time, space, volume, and number, but in ways that remain simplified and concrete, rather than abstract." 
    • - The Formal Operations stage (11+) : "Period of intellectual development characterized by thinking that includes abstract, theoretical and hypothetical ideas." They start thinking about their own thoughts and start become less egocentric.
  12. How is self-esteem related to self-evaluation?
    • Self concepts is a person's perception of his or her own personality. 
    • Consists of all your ideas, perceptions, stories, feelings about who you are. 

    • Self Esteem : regarding oneself as a worthwhile person; a positive evaluation of oneself. 
    • Relates to self esteem because our self-evaluation determines whether we have high or low self esteem.
  13. What are the 2 kinds of self-evaluations that can be made?  What are reference groups?
    • - Objective (clear scales for comparison "height and weight")
    • - Non-objective (no clear scales. ex : attractiveness.)

    - Reference group : any group that an individual identifies with and uses as a standard for social comparison.
  14. What is relative deprivation? How does our categorization of other people influence our perceptions and our memory of others?  What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?
    • - social identity are the characteristics we use to describe ourselves that reflect our group
    • memberships social identity helps us feel part of a larger whole.
    • - rivalry among groups, each of which regards itself as superior to others.
  15. What are attributions?
    - the process of making inferences about the causes of one's own behavior, and that of others.
  16. What are internal and external attributions?
    • - External attributions : one that lies outside a person. (tasting food before salting it.)
    • - Internal attributions : needs, personality traits that lie within the person. (salting the food before tasting it.)
  17. What three characteristics of a situation contribute to the likelihood of making an internal or external attribution.  What is the fundamental attribution error?
    - actor (person of interest), object ( the person's action is directed toward) and setting (social and physical environment.)

    - The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal causes (personality, likes and so forth.)
  18. What is a self-serving bias?
    - tendency to take personal credit for success and blame external causes for failure
  19. What is cognitive dissonance theory?
    - an uncomfortable clash between self-image, thoughts, beliefs, attitudes or perceptions and one's behavior.
  20. What are norms?
    - a widely accepted (but often unspoken) standard of conducts for appropriate behavior.
  21. What is social facilitation, social impairment?
    • - the tendency to perform better when in the presence of others. 
    • - presence of others hurt performance.
  22. What is conformity and compliance?
    • - bringing one's behavior into agreement or harmony with norms or with the behavior of others in a group.
    • - Bending to the requests of a person who has little or no authority or other form of social power.
  23. Describe the Ashe experiment of line length judgements in groups.
    You are shown three lines on a card and you must select the card that matches. Everyone gives the wrong answer, but you end up conforming.
  24. Describe Milgram’s studies of obedience.  What factors affected obedience?
    Milgram's shock experiment.

    - Milgram suggested that when directions come from an authority, people rationalize that they are not personally responsible for their actions.
  25. What are social traps? What is the tragedy of the commons?
  26. What factors contribute to acts of aggression?
    • - Instincts : questionable because humans do not have "killer instincts." Even wolves would back down and refuse to kill. 
    • - Biology : some brain areas are capable of triggering and ending aggressive behavior. 
    • Aversive stimuli, which produce discomfort or displeasure can heighten hostility and aggression.
  27. What is psychopathology? 
    What is abnormal behavior? 
    What is the DSM-IV?
    • - the scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders; also abnormal or maladaptive behavior. 
    • - abnormality defined on the basis of an extreme score on some dimension, such as IQ or anxiety. 
    • - DSM helps psychologists correctly identify mental disorders and select the best therapies to treat them.
  28. What are personality disorders? 
    What is antisocial personality disorder?  Describe the characteristics and causes.
    • - a maladaptive personality pattern.
    • - a person who lacks a conscience; is emotionally shallow, impulsive, and selfish; and tends to manipulate others. 
    • - Characteristics include charming at first. "blind" to signs of disgust in others causing their capacity for cruelty and their ability to use others. 
    • Causes include emotional deprivation and abused as children. Unusual brain waves patterns suggest under-arousal of the brain. "Thrill seekers."
  29. What are anxiety disorders? 
    What is an adjustment disorder?
    • - Disruptive feelings of fear, apprehension, or anxiety, or distortions in behavior that are anxiety related. 
    • -
  30. What is intelligence?
    an overall capacity to think rationally, act purposely and deal effectively with the environment.
  31. What is the difference between intelligence and an IQ score?
    - IQ : an index of intelligence that defined as a person's mental age divided by his or her chronological age and multiply by 100.
  32. What is the difference between an IQ test, an achievement test and aptitude tests?
    • - IQ test : multiply thing.
    • - Regular tests. 
    • - Aptitude test : a test that rates a person's potential to learn skills required by various occupations.
  33. Do IQ tests have reliability and validity (and what are reliability and validity)?

    Are they fair tests?
    • - Reliability must yield the same score or nearly the same score every time the person takes it.
    • - Validity is the ability of a test to measure what it purports to measure.

    - The test is valid if the scores correlate with the grades, but the test isn't valid (like magazine tests etc.)
  34. Describe the features of the Stanford-Binet test.
    • Tests that measure 5 factors 
    • - Fluid reasoning : (Ex : An apprentice is to a master as a novice is to an ____.)
    • - Knowledge : assess the person's knowledge about a wide range of topics. "What does cryptic mean" 
    • - Quantitative Reasoning : measures a person's ability to solve problems involving numbers. 
    • - Visual Spatial Processing : good at putting picture puzzles together and copying geometric shapes. 
    • - Working Memory : measures the ability to use short term memory.
  35. What is the WISC and WAIS? 
    How are test items for these exams constructed?
    • - WISC : Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. It is similar to the Stanford Binet test but it's designed to test children's intelligence. 
    • - WAIS : Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is for adults. 

    Tests designed for children and adults. Gives separate scores for performance (non verbal) and Intelligence and verbal (language-symbol oriented)
  36. Does your IQ score change over time?  How?
    Males and females don't differ. intelligence test allows us to compare the intellectual strengths and weaknesses of men and women. Yes, it does rise over time and age. It increases until about the age of 40.
  37. What is the evidence that there are genetic and environmental contributions to intelligence?
    • - Not necessarily. 
    • - Environmental has a big impact on intelligence compared to genetics.
  38. What is the purpose of doing intelligence testing?  What are reasons not to do intelligence testing?
    • - If grades depended solely on IQ, the connection would be stronger. Motivation, special talents etc influence grades and school success. 
    • - IQ is not a predictor of art, music and writing.
  39. What is mental retardation?
    What are the causes of retardation?  What are the categories of mental retardation discussed in class?
    • - Developmental disability. IQ score below 70. 
    • - Drugs and fetal development. 

    • - Organic, or related to physical disorder. Include Fetal damage or birth injuries.
    • - Metabolic : affects energy production and use of the body. Also causes intellectual disabilities. 
    • - Genetic abnormalities : missing a gene etc. 
    • - Familial : poor nutrition and not intellectuality stimulated. Deprived.
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