pain medications

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  1. what is the primary function of pain?
  2. types of peripheral pain receptors
    • mechanical
    • thermal
    • polymodal receptors
  3. what are the majority of cutaneous nociceptors?
  4. what is the pain pathway?
    nociceptor--> primary afferent--> spinal cord projection neuron--> thalamic neuron--> cortex
  5. what is substance P?
    sorta a neurotransmitter that activates pain receptors
  6. what substances are released from damaged cells?
    proteases, ATP, H+
  7. what is released from activated immune cells?
    cytokines, prostaglanidins, serotonin, histamine, H+
  8. what is the result of activated immune cells?
  9. does the body produce endogenous opioids?
  10. what is endorphins?
    endogenous opioid (morphine)
  11. what does naloxone do?
    it is an opioid antagonist (blocks opioid receptors)
  12. what does endorphins do in the brain?
    • analgesic characteristics of morphine in the brain
    • also have behavioral effaces and neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions
  13. what are the different types of endogenous opioids?
    • enkephalins
    • beta endorphine 31 amino acids
    • dynorphin 17 amino acids
  14. how are endorphins synthesized?
    formed from pro-endorphins peptides in the cell body and transported to the nerve terminal where they are cleaved by specific proteases
  15. what is the precursor for pro-olio-melanocortin?
    b-endorphin precursor
  16. what is the precursor for proenkephalin A?
    met-and leu-enkephalin precursor
  17. what is the precursor for proenkephalin B (prodynorphin)?
    dynorphin and a-neoendorphin precursor
  18. where are opioidergic neurons concentrated in?
    the ventral segmental area of the hypothalamus
  19. where is beta-endorphin found?
    in the pituitary gland
  20. what are the post-synaptic GPCR receptors for beta-endorphins?
    mu, kappa, delta (or gamma)
  21. what are mu receptors activated by?
    morphine -analgesia
  22. what is the primary action site of all opioids?
  23. where are mu receptors located (distributed)
    CNS and GI
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pain medications
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