The flashcards below were created by user odomjeffrey on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. what is the crack in the ocean floor through magma rises?
    a rift
  2. According to wegener, what happen about 250 million years ago?
    the supercontinent began breaking into smaller continents
  3. tectonic plates are blocks of
  4. at the center of a mid-ocean ridge is a(n)
    rift valley
  5. The composition of Earth's interior affects
    the speed and direction of seismic waves
  6. Which scale more accurately measures the magnitude of large earthquakes?
    moment magnitude scale
  7. If you are in a car during an earthquake, you should
    stop the car in a safe place
  8. what happens to tsunamis as they move toward shore?
    They increase in height.
  9. If you are indoors during an earthquake, you should
    stay away from windows
  10. Which of the following is NOT a cause of tsunamis?
  11. If you ars indoors during an earthquake, you should
    crouch under a desk.
  12. How does the structure of Earth' s interior affect seismic waves?
    It can affect the speed and direction of seismic waves
  13. Which of the following are studied to forecast earthquakes?
    seismic gaps foreshocks, rock changes
  14. Why do earthquakes usually occur at plate baundaries?
    Rock in environments near tectonic plate boundaries experience great stress.
  15. S waves are also known as
    shear waves.
  16. Fault zones form at plate boundaries because
    intense stress occurs there when the platesseparate, collide, subduct, or slide past each other.
  17. What forms on the ocean floor in a subduction zone?
  18. Volcanic eruptions rnay be signaled by
    a change in earthquake activity
  19. A large depression formed by the collapse of a volcanic cone is called a
  20. Volcanic ash, dust, blocks, bombs, and lapilli ara all
    pyroclastic materials.
  21. The eruption of Mount St. Helens was
    en explosive eruption
  22. Three events that might signal a volcanic eruption aro rhanges in earthquake activity, volcano surface bulges, and
    a change in gases emitted.
  23. Modern oceanography began with
    the HMS Challenger
  24. Most mid-ocean ridges form
    below sea level.
  25. A piece of sediment collected by drilling is a(n)
    core sample.
  26. The most common compounds in organic sediments are
    silica and calcium carbonate.
  27. To calculate the depth of the ocean floor with sonar, scientists measure
    the time it takes sound waves to travel.
  28. The source of most calcium carbonate in biogenic sediment is
  29. Most oxygen enters the ocean from
    the atmosphere.
  30. What is called the foundation of life in the ocean?
  31. The ocean is the main source of the trace minerals
    magnssium and bromine.
  32. Most offshore oil and petroleum deposits are found
    along continental margins
  33. In addition to increased use of toxic chemicals, what has reduced the ocean's ability to renew itself
    increased world population
  34. In addition to limitng the use of leaded gasoline, what has the United States done to reduce ocean pollution?
    banned the toxic chermical DDT
  35. Trace elements in the ooean are those minerals that are
    smallest in amount.
  36. Volcanic eruptions, chemical weathering of rock on land, ffid chemic,al rcactions between sea water and newly formed searfloor rocks providemost of the raw elements that form this dissolved solid in the ocsan.
    sea salts
  37. Where would a tidal bore occur?
    where a river enters the ocean
  38. The curving of the path of ocean currents and wind belts is called
    the Coriolis effect.
  39. The force that causes tides is
  40. Very large waves are usually the result of
    a long fetch.
  41. In the tropical latitudes, trade-wind belts push currents
  42. Sandbars are formed by
    longshore currents.
  43. As lower layers of air are warmed,
    the air rises.
  44. what air massss generally move eastward, toward Europe?
    mantime polar Atlantic
  45. A large body of air throughout which temperature and moisture content arc similar is a(n)
    air mass.
  46. Continental polar, maritime polar, continental tropical, andmaritime tropical are types of
    air masses.
  47. Doppler radar and satellite images provide information to create
    weather models.
  48. A pattern of meteorological symbols that represent the weather at a particular observing station is a
    station model.
  49. When air movss slowly, in takes on the temperrture and humidity of its region, becoming a(n)
    air mass.
  50. Lines that, connect points of equal temperature on a weather map are called
  51. An air mass that originates in the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean and brings warm, moist air is called
    maritime tropical.
  52. What weather effsct results when a moving air mass hits a mountain, rises, cools, and loses most of its moisture through precipftrtion?
    rain shadow
  53. which of these climates is characterized by dense, lush vegetation; broadleaf plants ; and high biodiversity?
    rain forest
  54. Climate does NOT change as a result of
    general circulation models.
  55. Which of the following is NOT an impact of climate change?
    change in tida patterns
  56. The average weather conditions for an area over a long period of time is referred to as the area's
  57. Tree rings have been used to measure
    hundreds to thousands of years
  58. What is the name for the climate of a small area?
  59. Which of the following rnay decrease temperatures by reflecting sunlight back into space?
    volcanic activity
  60. When an air mass encounters a mountain range, the air mass
    rises and cools.
  61. What do high levels of carbon dioxide in an ice core indicate?
    a warm climate
  62. Computer climate models that incorporate millions of pieces of data and help sort complex sets of variables &re called
    general circulation models
  63. What do fossils of flower pollen and plants with broad leaves indicate?
    warm climates
  64. What characteristic do the tropical savanna, and tropical rain-forest climates share?
    a small temperature range
  65. Which climate zone has an annual rainfall of less than 25 cm?
  66. Specific heat is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of 1 g of substance by
    1 C
  67. A telescope tha tuses a set of lenses to gather and focus light from distant objects is a
    refracting telescope.
  68. A constellation's change in position over several hours is caused by
    Earth's revolution around the sun.
  69. The Northern Hemisphere has the most hours of daylight at the
    summer solstice.
  70. A light -yeat equals
    9.46o7 x 10 12 km.
  71. Invisible electromagnetic radiation was discovercd with a
  72. One line of evidence of Earth's revolution around the sun is
    the varying positions of a constellation wer a period of weeks.
  73. What problem is solved by sending telescopes into space?
    interference of Earth's atmosphere in detecting electromagnetic radiation
  74. About 99% of all matter contained in the solar nebula now exists in
    the sun.
  75. The two inner planets most alike in size, mass, and density are
    Venus and Earth
  76. The early atmosphere developed when many volcanic eruptions released large amounts of gases rn a process called
  77. A rotating cloud of gas and dust from which Earth's solar system formed is called a(n)
    solar nebula
  78. Uranus's axis
    is almost parallel to its plane of orbit.
  79. When fast-moving planets pass slow-moving planets in their orbits, why does it appear as though planets that orbit more slowly than Earth are moving backward?
    because of retrograde motion
  80. The asteroid belt can be found between which two planets?
    Mars and Jupiter
  81. Small bodies from which planets ongrnated during the early formation of the solar system are called
  82. An engineer examining photos discovered volcanoes on
  83. Many comets in the Kuiper belt are the result of
    collisions between large objects
  84. Characteristics of Ganymede and Callisto are, respectively,
    a magnetic field and craters.
  85. Where is the Kuiper belt located?
    beyond Neptune's orbit
  86. Most of the sun's energy is a result of
    nuclear fusion.
  87. Auroras ars frequently seen
    after solar flares
  88. Which of the following is NOT a solar ejection?
  89. Sunspots vary in a cycle that lasts about
    11 years.
  90. Einstein's equation E = mc2 helps scientists understerd the sun's energy because the equation
    explains how mass can be converted into huge amounts of energy.
  91. Scientists break up the sun's light rrto a spectrum using a device called a
  92. Magnetic fields on the sun are produced by the sun's uneven rotation and
    gases in the convective zone.
  93. Hcw long would a star with the sun's mass stay on the main sequence?
    10 billion years
  94. After its temperature rises to 10,000,000"C, a protostar becomes a star when
    nuclear fusion begins
  95. What is a quasar?
    quasi-stellar radio source
  96. What is apparent magnitude?
    the brightness of a star as it appears from Earth
  97. An elliptical galaxy
    contains few young stars, has little dust and gas, and is elongated.
  98. Astronomers believe that cosmic background radratron formed
    shortly after the big bang.
  99. The big bang occurred about
    14 billion years ago
  100. The temperature of cosmic background radiation is
    almost absolute zero.
Card Set
Es final 2014
Show Answers