T/F: An invalid deductive argument is always unsound.
T/F: In logic, the truth of the premises must be established before any other analysis can occur.
T/F: An argument with a false premise cannot be valid.
T/F: No valid deductive argument can be made any stronger by adding additional premises, no matter what the premises state.
T/F: If a passage does not contain a conclusion, it cannot be an argument.
T/F: ‘Extension’ refers to the collection of objects to which a term applies.
T/F: Ostensive definitions avoid some of the limitations of extensional definitions.
T/F: Directive discourse in language is used to express emotion.
T/F: Fallacies of accident arise because all generalizations have some exceptions.
T/F: Every circular argument commits the fallacy of begging the question.
T/F: False cause is one of the fallacies of relevance.
T/F: The fallacy of equivocation occurs when something is taken out of context and misconstrued.
T/F: Validity and soundness are properties of premises and conclusions.
T/F: Abduction, or inference to the best explanation, is a form of ampliative reasoning.
T/F: Inference to the best explanation is deductively invalid, and it is useless for science and philosophy.
In which of the following subjects is reasoning outside the concern of the logicians?
D) none of the above
“Cigarette smoking should be banned in all public eating and drinking establishments because secondhand smoke has been shown to be detrimental to one’s health.” This is an example of:
B) an argument
“(1) The government should enact legislation permitting euthanasia. (2) Without this legislation people are denied their autonomy. (3) People have the right to die with dignity and ought to be able to choose to live or die.” What is the conclusion of this passage?
A) 1 - “The government should enact legislation permitting euthanasia.”
“Torture treats the victim as merely a means to an end. Therefore, it is immoral.” The unstated proposition in this argument is:
A) Treating a person as merely a means to an end is immoral.
“(1) Workers are often exposed to contamination on the work premises and are not warned of the dangers of this exposure. (2) For instance, asbestos workers were not told for many years of the dangers of contracting asbestosis. (3) And farm workers are often misled about the dangers of insecticides and fertilizers. (4) Tougher legislation should be enacted in order to insure the safety of all workers.” Which sentence is the conclusion?
A) 4 - Tougher legislation should be enacted in order to insure the safety of all workers.”
“(1) The prince greeted a small crowd of well-wishers outside his palace yesterday. (2) He pointed out several architectural features of the building that historians have found interesting. (3) Apparently, there are several aspects of the building that are not typical of the time it was built, and (4) the prince clearly enjoyed having the opportunity to share his knowledge with such an appreciative audience.” Which sentence presents the conclusion of the passage?
C) There is no conclusion
“(1) I’ll tell you why the mayor decided to modify the city’s curbs for wheelchair users. (2) First, the city has a moral obligation to do so. (3) Second, since there are more voters in wheelchairs than ever before, they will be more likely to vote for the mayor in the next election if he makes life easier for them.” What is true of this passage?
A) Sentences 2 and 3 explain 1.
“(1) Skinner’s utopian society ought to be rejected. (2) The sort of society Skinner proposes in Walden Two is a non-competitive, lifeless society that lacks creativity and imagination. (3) It also lacks the conditions that make for festivity and fantasy, two significant human traits. (4) The type of society that Skinner proposes would turn people into robots.” Which sentence expresses the conclusion of the argument?
A) 1 – “Skinner’s utopian society ought to be rejected.”
When your father says to you, “I am really sick of coming home to such a mess!” the best description of this sentence is: A) an exclamatory sentence used directively, B) an exclamatory sentence used expressively, C) a declarative sentence used directively, D) an imperative sentence used directively.
A or B: an exclamatory sentence used directively, or an exclamatory sentence used expressively
“Hey, Jim – you about done there?” When Jim’s carpool partner says this to him, it is an example of:
C) an interrogative sentence used in directive discourse
Which type of definition is found in the dictionary?
What is the relationship between the definiendum and the definiens?
C) The definiens is that which explains the meaning of the definiendum
If you are told that “pig” means “swine,” you have been given what kind of definition?
C) a synonymous definition
A teacher says that “amphibian” means frogs, newts, and salamanders. Is she giving the students a definition?
B) Yes. This is a definition by example.
A child points at her family dog and says “doggie” to her mother. This is an:
D) ostensive definition
Advertisements featuring famous musicians selling life insurance are examples of the fallacy of:
C) appeal to inappropriate authority
“You should buy these shoes because everyone has them! Except ugly people, of course.” This speaker is making a fallacy of:
A) ad populum
Which fallacy occurs when we confuse temporal with causal relations?
C) false cause
“I often see dogs in the park. You have a dog; therefore, I often see your dog in the park.” This commits the fallacy of:
Defense lawyers often explain the actions of their clients by referring to their client’s own mistreatment as a child. These explanations may be committing what fallacy? A) appeal to pity, B) appeal to emotion, C) irrelevant conclusion, D) appeal to force
A or B: appeal to pity or appeal to emotion
“I know there are angels! There must be no one can prove that they don’t exist!” This commits the fallacy of:
D) argument from ignorance
Which of the following statements is true?
C) 2 = II
Select the statement that is false.
D) Moe refers to ‘Moe’.
Two terms are co-referential when: A) They have the same intension, B) They refer to all and only the same things, C) They have the same extension, D) All of the above
B, C, or D: They refer to all and only the same things, or they have the same extension, or all of the above
‘Unicorn’ and ‘dragon’ have:
B) The same extension but different intensions
How do we distinguish an ampliative from a deductive argument?
C) In ampliative arguments, the truth of the premises makes the truth of the conclusion likely; whereas in deductive arguments the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion.
A __________ proposition makes only one assertion.
The __________ of an argument is the proposition that is affirmed on the basis of other propositions in the argument.
An inductive argument claims to support its conclusion only with some degree of __________.
To clarify the relations between the premises and conclusion in an argument, it is often helpful to __________ or diagram them. (
When a pastor says to a couple, “I now pronounce you man and wife,” he/she is using __________ language.
The petitio principii (begging the question fallacy) assumes the __________ of what it seeks to prove.
In the fallacy of __________, we reason from the attributes of the parts to the attributes of the whole.
Consider the following sentences: (i) The Morning Star is the Morning Star. (ii) The Morning Star is the Evening Star. ‘Morning Star’ and ‘Evening Star’ are co-referential, yet (ii) is informative whereas (i) is not. Why?
C) Those two terms have different intensions.
Consider the following two arguments: (1) It is raining or it is snowing. It is not raining. Therefore, it is snowing. (2) Three is odd or three is even. Three is not odd. Therefore, three is even. What do they have in common?