hypolimnas bolina

  1. dyson and hurst 2004
    1927- 100 females per male, lasted 400 generations. high prevalence of male killing wolbachia. lose 57% repro output. other islands 70/80% male. 2/63 females produced some male offspring. only mated females produce viable eggs- parthenogensis isnt the problem. 63/64 females infected. 1 not infected- 1:1 brood ratio. males can be born when male killing fails/ rare uninfected female. difference in spermatophore size, males have developed smaller sperm. ejaculate partitioning, compensatory, adaption to bias, ameliorated lack of male effect. host failed to evolve resistance/ resistance countered. similar case- driving X chromosome present in Drosophila pseudoobscurum 25,000ys.
  2. riparbelli 2012-
    affects development male embryos- targets male chromatin remodelling, disturbs mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome behaviour.
  3. saenike 2007
    drosophila inubula. infected 15,000-700,000 yrs. mutuation of major effect that is needed acts early in development- adverse pleiotropic consequences may outweight benefits
  4. charlat 07
    upolu males rare 2005, common 2007. 2006- 21 m and 33 f in Savaii. 14 f- all produced male progeny, 2006 1:1. 2001- 3/64 had males. lack of male killing in 2006 as there was a high egg hatch rate. 2006- salelologa, close to upolu, 1:1 nearly complete, no heterogeneity btw broods, high egg hatch rate. sagone- shift more incomplete, distant from upolu, 3/6 no sons, median egg hatch rate 77%. previous strain not replaced- host suppressor genes. mutation spread fast. gene rescues males. when males uncommon, females mate more.
  5. wolbachia
    uniparentally inherited bacteria. bias primary/ secondary sex ratio toward female productions as males cant transmit it. males die during embryogenesis. death of male host increases survival prospects of female siblings in hosts where there is sib-sib competition. selection on autosomes to return sex ration to unity quickly prevails- elements dont attain high frequency. repressor genes/ elements restore pops to fisher equilibrium.
  6. parliament of genes
    more adaptability in large genome of autosomes than restricted genome sex-ratio-distorting element. disparity produces power imbalance in speed and variety of response to selection leads to suppression of selfish element when their freq is high and prevents extreme bias level.
  7. is rapid repression inevitable
    no. autosomal genes dont necessarily prevail in conflicts btw sex ratio distorters and their hosts over pop genetic time scales. may reflect wide variety of systems.
  8. female butterflies have what
    high intrinsic rate of increase. level of fertility loss- 57%, not below that required for pop persistence
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hypolimnas bolina
hypolimnas bolina