SGEs, behaviour, ecology and evolution

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  1. SGEs have been suggested to cause what
    repro isolation and speciation
  2. cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by wolbachia promotes what and allows what
    isolation and allows divergence to continue
  3. shoemaker et al looked at repro isolation in two spp of drosophila who live in what
    sympatry in USA
  4. the 2 spp of drosophila both use what for mating and oviposition
  5. if they both use these mushrooms, breeders must what
    encounter each other
  6. what happened when he allowed d. recens males and d. subquinaria females to mate
    they mated
  7. d. subquinaria males and d. recens females- mate or not mate?
  8. shoemaker et al conducted crosses and found what
    there was a wolbachia barrier- CI in one direction was coupled to other isolating mechanisms in the other such as mate discrimination eliminating gene flow between species
  9. however, it is unclear whether wolbachia provide sufficient what? are they associated w what frequently enough
    isolation btw spp to allow speciation. speciation
  10. bidirectional compatibility has been looked at in what
    the nasonia complex- 3 sister spp of parasitic wasp that diverged from their common ancestor 250,000 years ago. all three are infected w wolbachia and some have a double infection
  11. through multiple infections, CI remains efficient in Nasonia by what
    favouring females with greatest bacterial diversity
  12. in Nasonia, different strains have different modification rescue systems which leads to what
    incompatibility within 2 organisms of the same spp
  13. as the nasonia wasps are infected by multiple strains, there is a higher change of what
    compatible repro by having one strain in common
  14. interspecific matings of 3 spp of Nasonia wasp led to what
    all male offspring or embryonic death due to CI
  15. they eliminated the nasonia wolbachia infection with antibiotics and found what
    viable female hybrids- wolbachia is responsible for barrier
  16. Bordenstein et al 2001 found what
    infection with 2 different strains in Nasonia was the first reproductive barrier
  17. weeks et al 2002 said what
    wolbachia not supported as cause of speciation, cannot rule it out
  18. chamoion de crespigny et al 2006
    • wolbachia and mating behaviour- drosophila melanogaster and d. simulans. varying levels of CI
    • wolbachia infected males from both spp mate at a higher rate, for longer periods, with shorter intervals btw matings
  19. CdC et al found a decline in CI associated with  mating history suggesting what
    male mating reduce transmission adv of wolbachia
  20. non virgin d./simulans had____% less CI than virgins, and d.m had ____% less
  21. overal CdC concluded what
    mating improves fitness as males regain reproductive compatibility w infected females. strong selective adv for mating at a high rate leading to high promiscuity levels, infected males trade off the costs
  22. burt et al
    • p elements in d. melanogaster- if all removed, fitness would increase by 10%. 
    • t halotype at 5% frequency decreases fitness by 2%
  23. Jiggins et al 2000 looked at the butterfly Acraea encedon, where females are ltd by access to males for reproduction. she found that infected females do what
    form lekking swarms at landmarks to solicit matings from males, mated females leave. the sex role is reversed. results in frequency dependent selection against infected females.
  24. uninfected butterflies benefit when males are scarce. this may prevent the infection spreading to what
  25. Jiggins et al 2000 concluded what
    that wolbachia altered the mating system, which then altered the dynamics of wolbachia
Card Set
SGEs, behaviour, ecology and evolution
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