1.What are some English examples of demonstrative pronouns
a.“this/these” and “that/those”
2.What Greek words are demonstrative pronouns?
- a.Outos (with a rough breathing and circumflex) meaning “this/these”
- b.Ekeivos meaning “that/those”
3.When a demonstrative functions as a pronoun how are it’s a) case, b) number, and c) gender determined?
- a.Case is determined by its function in the sentence
- b.Number is determined by its antecedent.
- c.Gender is determined by its antecedent.
4.When a demonstrative functions as an adjective, how are its case, number and gender determined?
a.By the noun it is modifying.
5.What is peculiar about the form of demonstratives?
- a.The neuter singular nominative and accusative do not use case endings, so the form ends in the stem omicron rather than “ov”.
- b.“outos” always begins with a rough breathing or tau. This is important in distinguishing the feminine demonstrative (autai – with rough breathing) from autos (smooth breathing).
- c.The first stem vowel used in outos (rough) depends upon the final stem vowel
- a.If the final vowel is alpha or eta, the demonstrative will have “au” in the stem (tautais, tautns)
- b.If the final vowel is omicron, the stem will have “ou”
6.How do you translate a demonstrative if functioning as a pronoun?
a.Ex. “outos” = this (man/one) it may require the additional word in paranthesis.
7.If a demonstrative is functioning as an adjective, what position does it occur in?
- a.The predicate position (no article in front of the demonstrative.
- b.Ex:. Outos ‘o anthropos = this man
- c.This is the opposite of other adjectives so don’t get them confused.
8.What is the vocative case?
- a.The case of direct address. A noun used the vocative case when it is being directly addressed.
- b.In the plural, the vocative is always identical to the nominative plural (ex. Avthropoi)
- c.In the singular first declension, the vocative is the same as the nominative (adelpn)
- d.In the singular second declension, the vocative ending is usually and epsilon (apostole)
- e.In the singular third declension, the vocative is usually the bare stem of the word, sometimes with the stem vowel being changed (vocative of patnr is pater)
9.What are the degrees of an adjective and what Greek words are used for each degree?
- a.The positive degree – the uncompared form of the adjective: “large” (megas)
- b.The comparative degree – the greater of the two terms: “larger” (meizwn)
- c.The superlative degree – describes the greatest, or a comparison of three or more - “largest” (megistws)
- a.In Koine Greek the superlative was dyng out and its function was being assumed by the comparative… context is the key to translation.
10.What is a “crasis”?
a.When a word is formed by combining two words. Ex: kagw is a crasis of kai and egw.
11.What is unique about the word “polus”?
a.It looks like a cross between a second and third declension word.