cardiac and pulmonary revision

  1. 1. from which cells are bronchioalveolar carcinomas derived?
    clara cells and type II pneumocytes
  2. 2. how can singer's nodules be distinguished from polyps?
    singers nodules are bilateral
  3. 3. How do large and small vsd's differ?
    small - often the membranous area. No treatment. Larger - muscular wall involved.
  4. 4. how do you manage IECOPD?
    SHONA - steroids, heparin, oxygen, nebulised bronchodilators, antibiotics
  5. 5. how is type A dissecting aneurysm managed?
    emergency surgical repair.
  6. 6. how is type B dissecting aneurysm managed?
    hypertension control
  7. 7. how long is the process of MI from coagulative necrosis to scar formation?
    6-8 weeks
  8. 8. what are the 2 types of dissecting aneurysm and which is more common?
    tpe A (ascending aorta only) - 67%. Type B (descending aurta only) - 33%.
  9. 9. what are the 3 causes of acute serofibrinous pleuritis>
    infection, infarction, tumour
  10. 10. what are the 4 long term complications of MI?
    LV failure, ventricular aneurys, recurrent MI, dressler's syndrome
  11. 11. what are the 6 short term complications of MI?
    arrhythmia, LV failure, rupture, mitral valve incompetence, ural thrombosis, acute pericarditis
  12. 12. what are the requirements for a STEMI?
    ST elevation by 2 mm in 2 or more chest leads. Chronic I with Q wave formation. Iaging of a full thickness scar. 2 out of 3 criteriae.
  13. 13. what are the top 3 causes of serous transudatative cardiac effusion?
    heart failure, hypoalbuminaeia, myxoedema
  14. 14. what are the top 4 causes of serosanguinous pericardial effusion?
    infection, uraeia, neoplasia, connective tissue disorders
  15. 15. what cells are involved in an atrial myxoma?
    stellate cells
  16. 16. what is associated with ostium primum defect?
    abnormal mitral valve
  17. 17. what is Caisson disease?
    the bends' in divers
  18. 18. what is Dressler's syndrome and when does it occur?
    post MI - autoimmune pericarditis with high ESR and persistent fever.
  19. 19. what is lethal midline lyphoma?
    lymphoma affecting natural killer cells. Affects upper respiratory tract with inflammation.
  20. 20. what is stasis dermatitis?
    varicose dermatitis with pigmentation due to haemosiderin deposition
  21. 21. what is the age group for croup and treatment
    6 months to 3 years, supportive + steroids
  22. 22. what is the commonest cause of a fibrin rich inflammatory cardiac exudate?
    acute MI
  23. 23. what is the commonest presentation of wegener's granulomatosis?
    nasal lesions
  24. 24. what is the medical term for croup?
    acute laryngotracheobronchitis
  25. 25. what is the prognosis for juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis
    regress by puberty
  26. 26. what kind of hypersensitivity is involved in extrinsic allergic alveolitis?
    type III and IV
  27. 27. what kind of hypersensitivity is involved in sarcoidosis?
    type IV
  28. 28. where is the commonest location laryngeal cancer and what type of cell is it?
    glottic - squamous cell cancer
  29. 29. which 3 drugs are involved in initial tuberculosis therapy?
    rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide. Add ethambutol where resistance is likely.
  30. 30. which cancers most often metastatise to the lung pleura?
    lungs, breast, ovary
  31. 31. which cancers most often metastatise to the lungs?
    breast, kidney, uterus, ovary, testes, thyroid
  32. 32. which part of the lung is most affected in asbestosis?
    base of the lung.
  33. 33. which part of the lung is most affected in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?
    base of the lung.
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cardiac and pulmonary revision