liver and kidney revision

  1. 1. Concerning hepatitis B, which protein is part of the vaccine?
    HBsAg (hep b surface antigen)
  2. 2. Concerning hepatitis B, which protein is raised in active acute disease?
    HBcAg (Hep b core antigen) or look for DNA
  3. 3. Concerning hepatitis B, which protein is raised in chronic disease?
    HbeAg (hep b e antigen)
  4. 4. how do keratinizing and non keratinising squamous metaplasia of the bladder differ?
    keratinizing are associated with chronic irritation and often progress to squamous carcinoma. Non-keratinising are in women and have no pathological complication.
  5. 5. in which condition do hamartomatous gastric polyps occur?
    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
  6. 6. in which people are fundal gastric polyps seen?
  7. 7. what 2 conditions predispose to cholangiocarcinoma of the liver?
    sclerosing cholangitis, clonorchis sinesis (chinese liver flukes)
  8. 8. what 2 things predispose to angiosarcoma?
    vinyl chloride monomer, anabolic steroids
  9. 9. what 3 conditions is adult HUS associated with?
    pregnancy (even several months after), oestrogen therapy, chemotherapy and immunosuppression
  10. 10. what 4 heriditary enzyme defects can cause intrahepatic jaundice?
    dubin-johnson, rotor's, gilbert's, crigler-najjar
  11. 11. what are Brunn's nests in the urintary tract?
    glandular metaplasia, common in a normal bladder
  12. 12. what are the 2 causes of heriditary glomerulonephritis and how are they inherited?
    Alport's and Fabry's syndormes - both are X linked in most cases.
  13. 13. what are the 2 main features of hypertrophic hypersecretory gastropathy?
    acid hypersecretion and gastric protein loss
  14. 14. what cells are malignant in zollinger ellison syndrome?
    pancreatic G cells.
  15. 15. what is diffuse cortical necrosis associated with?
    severe hypotension.
  16. 16. what is medullary sponge kidney and what is the main complication?
    multiple cysts in renal papillae, with renal stones developing
  17. 17. what is menetrier's disease?
    rare disease, gross hyperplasia of gastric pits and atrophy of glands. Superficial ulcerations causes hypoalbuminaemia
  18. 18. what is the difference between intrinsic hepatotoxins and idiosyncratic hepatotoxins?
    intrinsic = dose dependant, predictable toxic effect. Idiosyncratic = unpredictable, due to hypersensitivity or drug metabolism
  19. 19. what is the rule of 2s for meckel's diverticulum?
    2% of the population, 2 feet from the ileocaecal junction, up to 2 inches long
  20. 20. what type of cancer is most common in the kidney?
    adenocarcinoma (renal cell carcinoma)
  21. 21. which 4 tumour types metastatise most commonly to the liver?
    lung, breast, colon, stomach
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liver and kidney revision