elementary education

  1. Lawerence Kohlburg
    followed Piaget ethical or moral decisions in 6 stages for white middle class males
  2. Kohlberg Stage 1
    punishment and obedience simply follow rules to escape punishment
  3. Kohlberg Stage 2
    follow rules to excape punishment and recieve reward
  4. Kohlberg Stage 4
    adolescents become oriendted to conscience and they recognize the importance of established social order reflecting basic social values, such as honesty mutual repect, courtesy and so forth
  5. Kohlberg stage 5
    post conventional moraity recognize the importance of both individual and social contracts but believe that people should generally abide by the rules greatest good to the majority
  6. Kohlberg Stage 6
    • very few people reach
    • following stage 5 except when it does not make sense and a greater obligation to their conscience MLK jr
  7. Carol Gilligan
    • student of Kohlberg did his study only onto women
    • unlike men at 5 and 6 women tend to value caring and compassion for others above abstract rational principles. Make decisions based on their conclusions on how their choices and actions affect others
    • 1 concerned with herself
    • 2 concerned with others
    • 3 synthesizes responsibilities to both herself and to others
  8. Jermone Bruner
    • constructivism
    • active learning process which involves the lerner constructing new concepts based on prior knowledge
    • supports a spiral curriculum that includes a scaffolding of skills
  9. Bruner says instruction should consider
    • 1 natural learner tendencies
    • 2 organization of knowldge for ease of learning
    • 3 effective sequencing of content
    • 4 appropriate reward and punishment
  10. Jaime Escalante
    America's greatest teacher: told bad Johnny's parents he was good and therefore he was good
  11. Carl Jung
    • 1921 Psychological Types
    • thinking/feeling, sensing/intuition, judging/erception, and extrovert/introvert
  12. Learning Styles inventories
    • VARK
    • visual
    • auditory
    • reading and writing
    • Kinesthetic
  13. Howard Gardener
    • Theory of multiple intelligences 1983
    • linguistic, logical/mathmatical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
  14. Robert F Mager
    define objective as being an intent that a statement communicates to the reader
  15. 3 types of objectives
    • cognitive (thinking and learning)
    • affective (valuing and feelings)
    • psychomotor (that have to do with skills)
  16. Understanding by design
    • Outcome
    • standards
    • how learning will be assessed
    • evidence to be assembled
    • instructional methods
    • experiences will inspire interest motivation and success
  17. Blooms Taxonomy
    • knowledge
    • comprehension
    • application
    • analysis
    • synthesis
    • evaluation
  18. Metacognition
    knowledge of thought or thinking about thinking
  19. Goals should be matched against
    • importance
    • insruction
    • evaluation
    • suitability
  20. outcome based planning
    starts with the end product
  21. heterogeneous groups
    represent different abilities and needs
  22. homogeneous groups
    most similar in their skills and perhaps interests
  23. cooperative learning
    group based tasks, individual accountability
  24. think-pair-share
  25. think-pair-share and jigsaw
    cooperative learning style
  26. suitability
    goals for a given course must be achievable for the entire class, while leaving room to challenge students to master new skills
  27. Physical Environment
    lighting, bulletinboard, posters (change), movable desks, teacher desk in back of room
  28. Social and Emotional Climate
    practice research skills, promotes risk taking, how students will not ridicule, feel free to answer and ask questions, avoid sarcasm
  29. Academic Learning Time
    do not lose 5 min begining and end of class

    do include: instruction, support, regular assessment, feedback
  30. Wait time for questions
    • ask the question
    • provide adequate wait time
    • call on the student
    • tell the student if the response was correct
    • praise

    only put a name in front of the question if the student is not paying attention
  31. effective use of time
    decreases discipline isssues
  32. organizing instruction
    • prepared all materials and ready to go before begining any classroom lesson
    • initiating (hook)
    • objective
    • then attendence
    • instructional
    • short assessment (guided practice activity)
  33. transition
    • first the teacher tell the students what he or she is going to say, tells the students, then reviews what is taught
    • clear directions, open ended questions, addressing questions, modeling approaches, encouraging discourse and assessing students. provide constant pattern
  34. Technology in the classroom
    • identifies appropriate software
    • classroom procedures
    • policies
    • strategies for instructing students in searches
  35. classroom management
    differences among learners in regard to information processing or moral decision making can use this to set classroom rules
  36. classroom rules should be based on
    • honesty mutual respect, consideration, and courtesty
    • should apply to attendance, grades and student behavior
  37. "with it"-ness in the classroom
    • dynamics in classroom
    • each student and interactions between students
    • "I like that way XXXXX is working in her math book."
    • No opportunity to misbehave
  38. controlled vocabulary
    • limit text for new readers
    • most children do not experience such a protected environment due to environmental vocabulary
  39. compound word rule
    the child divides a compound word into its parts cow-boy and foot-ball
  40. v/cv and the vc/cv rules
    looking for the pattern o-ven bo-dy or sum-mer and ig-loo
  41. structural analysis best for older readers
    • 1. -le comes at the end of the words and a consonant comes before it the consonant goes with the -le as in the word pur-ple
    • 2. The suffix -ed forms a separate syllable if d or t comes before the -ed as in skidd-ed and mist-ed.
  42. Context clues
    • syntactic cues- comprehension grammatical hints order of words, word endings way the words function
    • semantic cues- hints in passage
    • phonemes and graphemes- does not know ph=f but understands I heard the phone ring.
  43. scaffold
    • demonstrating, guiding and teaching
    • modeled, shared, interactive, guided, and independent levels of support
  44. activiation prior knowledge
    readers pay more attention when thye relate to the text
  45. predicting or asking questions
    asking questions is at the heart of thoughtful reading
  46. visualizing
    active readers create visual images based on the words they read in the text
  47. drawing inferences
    inferring is when the readers take what they know, garner blues from text and think ahead
  48. determining important ideas
    grasp essential ideas and important information
  49. synthesizing information
    combining new information with existing knowledge to from an original idea
  50. repairing understanding
    if confusion disrupts meaning, readers need to stop and clarify their understanding. Readers may use a variety of strategies to "fix up" comprehension when meaning goes awry.
  51. confirming
    readers confirm predictions they originally made
  52. using parts of the book
    students should use book parts such as charts, diagrams, indexes and the table of contents to improve their understanding of the reading content
  53. reflecting
    an important strategy is for students to think about, or reflect on, what they have just read.
Card Set
elementary education