Sign 1

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  1. - What is manual babbling?
    • Produced between 7-14 months,
    • signing babies produce manual babbling similar to spoken language babbling.
  2. Babbling is characterized by:
    • it is Meaningless form
    • no communicative intent
    • repetitive and cyclic
    • produced within signing space
  3. - What are some unique characteristics of child-directed signing (“motherese”)?
    • Direct manipulation of the linguistic articulators
    • signing on the child
    • Early ungrammatical facial expressions
  4. Do deaf or hearing babies prefer to watch child-directed signing?
    • Both deaf and hearing babies prefer to watch child directed signing.
    • Reasons: helps maintain and attract attention/ helps children detect word and clause boundaries
  5. - What is the order of acquisition for the phonological parameters in sign language (easiest to hardest to learn)?
    Location, movement, orientation, handshape.

    • - Are iconic signs acquired earlier than non-iconic signs?
    • NO: Iconic signs are not acquired earlier than other signs.
  6. - How are the milestones of babbling, first words, and first two-word combinations different for deaf babies as compared with hearing babies?
    • Do not differ between hearing and deaf babies. Manual and verbal milestones are pretty much the same.
    • - Babbling: 6-12 months
    • - First words: Around 1 year
    • - First two-word combinations: After acquiring a vocabulary of more than 100 items (usually around 18 months)
  7. - Are ASL pronouns acquired early and effortlessly by deaf children?
    • No. At around 18 months, they begin to analyze the pointing gesture as a lexical sign.
    • Children may initially interpret a point to the chest as someone’s name and an outward point as another name for themselves.
    •  Correct use of I/You at around 2 years old.
  8. - How are linguistic facial expressions acquired by deaf children?  
    • Negation:Young children often communicate “no” with a head shake
    • @ 1 year: children produce head shakes in response to questions or to reject
    • @ 18 months: children start to produce manual negative signs, but without the obligatory headshake
    • A 1-8 month delay before negative headshake is added to the manual sign
  9. Negation: Do children recruit early communicative head shakes into their emerging linguistic system?
    No: manual negation first occurs without non-manual marking (negation sign produced before the head shake)
  10. Adverbials:
    • Children initially produce bare manual verbs without facial adverbials
    • Children sometimes make errors and the errors indicate children are actively analyzing facial morphemes and understanding their meaning
  11. Do non-manual adverbial markings follow the same acquisition pattern?
    Yes: bare manual predicates are produced before adding non-manual facial morphology
  12. WH Questions and Conditionals: Do sentential non-manual morphemes follow the same “hands before faces” pattern?
    Yes: structures are first marked manually; scope and timing of the non-manual marker is difficult
  13. manual signs (e.g., WH signs, signs expressing negation)
    are produced before children correctly produce non-manual morphemes (e.g., furrowed brows; headshake).
  14. - Is the use of signing space to express co-reference acquired early or late? Why?
    • Relatively late:Children must learn to associate references with locations in signing space.
    • Children must remember the associations between discourse referents and spatial locations
    • Requires symbolic mapping and spatial memory
  15. - What are the linguistic effects of late exposure to language?
    Incomplete grammatical knowledge
  16. - What are the cognitive effects of late exposure to language?
    • Theory of Mind: understanding that other people have minds and that someone can have a different belief from you.
    • - Does age of acquisition have an equal effect on first and second language learning?
    • Late first language learners
    • – Born deaf, exposed to ASL between 9-13 years
    • Late second language learners
    • – Born hearing, acquired spoken English
    • – Lost their hearing between 9-11 years (viral infection)
    • – Enrolled in schools for the deaf with signing programs
    • Early first language learners (ages 5 -8)
    • Native learners (deaf signing parents)
  17. - What are the actual, known benefits of “baby signing”?
    There were NO ACTUAL proven benefits.
  18. - How does “baby signing” differ from the way deaf children learn sign language?
    Baby signing only teaches words, not grammar and semantics.
  19. - Why is lip reading hard for deaf children? What sounds cannot be read on the lips?
    • Voiced and unvoiced sounds look identical: (b, d, g) vs (p, t, k)
    • Nasal and non-nasal sounds look identical: m/b, n/d
    • Voiced sounds are created by vibrations of the vocal chords within the larynx
    • Voiced and voiceless sounds look the same z/s b/p d/t g/k
    • Nasal sounds are created by lowering the soft palate so that air escapes through the nose
    • Nasal and oral sounds look the same: m/b n/d ng/g (sang/sag)
  20. - What are some factors that are linked to success in spoken language acquisition by deaf children?
    • Success in spoken language acquisition tied to:
    • Early detection of hearing loss and intervention
    • Successful use of hearing aids
    • High level of parental involvement in speech training
    • Ability to auditorily discriminate speech sounds
    • Higher than average non-verbal IQ
    • Higher than average socioeconomic status
Card Set
Sign 1
deaf culture
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