1. Why are classical concepts of art more appealing than the Byzantine/Medieval examples? (Chapter 19, Italy, 1200 to 1400). Ex: MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, 1501–1504.
    • detail
    • Refined
    • ideal
    • During the early renaissance the use of shadow to give volume to figures was pioneered, along with the use of perspective, and foreshortening once again became popular in art. Humanism or the revival of ancient literature, art , and values directly relates to the changes seen in this period. The revival of naturalism or trying to depict things as real as possible in art triggered the invention of these techniques in a pursuit of realism.

Classical concepts of art are more appealing than medieval ones because they seem more real. The rigid, unnatural portrayals of people seen in medieval art is significantly less appealing because it seems less real than the very detailed classical forms. Just like a five year old's drawing of a elephant isn't as appealing as one in a museum because it is not as realistic. This transition between styles is most clear in the painting of this period. Over time more elements that make the paintings seem real appear. Like the use of foreshortening in Buoninsegna's Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, or the use of lighting and shadow in Bondones's Madonna Enthroned.

Architecture from this period does bear striking resemblances to that of the gothic period but some important differences are the introduction of rounded features like domes and rounded arches. also important is the use of marble encrusting decoration best seen on the Florence cathedral and the refinement of the traditional gothic spire to the numerous pinnacles seen on the Milan Cathedral.
  2. • What spatial and illusionary devices were developed during the Proto-Renaissance? How are these examples of humanism? (Chapter 19, Italy, 1200 to 1400).
    -----Humanism-an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters
    • Linerar perspective
    • triptych (three-part panel painting)
    • The camera obscura. -Artists used it to help draw things in perspective.

    • Examples of humanism because
    • welfare of audience vision 

    Ex:Jan van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride,In the visual arts, humanism stood for (1) The emergence of the individual figure, in place of stereotyped, or symbolic figures. (2) Greater realism and consequent attention to detail, as reflected in the development of linear perspective and the increasing realism of human faces and bodies; this new approach helps to explain why classical sculpture was so revered, and why Byzantine art fell out of fashion. (3) An emphasis on and promotion of virtuous action: an approach echoed by the leading art theorist of the Renaissance Leon Battista Alberti (1404-72) when he declared, "happiness cannot be gained without good works and just and righteous deeds".The promotion of virtuous action reflected the growing idea that man, not fate or God, controlled human destiny, and was a key reason why history painting (that is, pictures with uplifting 'messages') became regarded as the highest form of painting. Of course, the exploration of virtue in the visual arts also involved an examination of vice and human evil.
  3. • How does wealthy merchant patronage shape the content and appearance of religious and secular art in Northern Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries? (Chapter 20: Northern Europe, 1400-1500).
    • 3 Because Back then there was not Photoshop Thus nobody could produce porn at the quality that we see today
    • ownership papers
    • $$$$$$$$
    • only rich can have and not the commeners
    • printmaking helped expand to everyone
  4. • Why does the portrait – absent in art for nearly 1000 years – return to Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries? (Chapter 20: Northern Europe, 1400-1500).
    • Humanism
    • Celabration of man
    • Ex:JAN VAN EYCK, Man in a Red Turban, 1433.
  5. • What are the primary stylistic achievements of 15th-century Italian artists? How do these traits reflect a change in man's view of spirituality and the emergence of Humanism? (Chapter 21: Italy, 1400-1500).
    In keeping with the spirit of humanism, artists of the early Renaissance strove to portray lifelike human forms with correct proportions and realistic clothing and expressions. Artists developed new techniques to give paintings a more three-dimensional, life-like quality, and commonly studied human and animal anatomy in efforts to better understand their subjects.
  6. • How did the Medici Family influence art production during the Renaissance? (Chapter 21: Italy, 1400-1500). Ex works of michangelo
    Artists would be commissioned for years at a time. Their paintings were not just bought, but their supplies paid for, and they were encouraged to study
  7. • Historically, Christianity has recognized nature as an aristocratic force with an eye towards refinement (nature as an evolutionary model, personified in the guise of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, 1505 – LEFT/BELOW). Consequently, men and women were advised to be ―set apart‖ (holy) from nature (given nature’s ―survivalist‖ temperament – there can be no right or wrong, good or evil with nature. It’s ―survive or perish,‖ as articulated by the likes of Charles Darwin). By contrast, medieval art uses gold to drown out the natural world, in an effort to showcase the spirit vs. the flesh (RIGHT/BELOW - Byzantine School, Madonna and Child on a Curved Throne, 13th century). But during the Renaissance, artists and philosophers moved away from such negative view of nature to ones of benevolence and adoration. They insisted on the inherent goodness of both people and nature. How is nature depicted in LEONARDO DA VINCI’S, Madonna of the Rocks, 1483? (Figure 22-2).
    -------Realistic, backgoriund has nature, natual world is a positive force, detailed like realistic, backgroud looks like the womb, the clothing on her emphasis her womb. You can tell what plants are painted within the photo. Nature blends and the nagel looks like it is both genders. Glorification of flesh as it is idealized/beautified
  8. • Why do works of art from the High Renaissance continue to be understood as the most famous art in the western world? (Chapter 22: Italy, 1500-1600). Ex: Michelangelo Buonarroti, David,
    • Mannerism
    • Firstly, some very good art was produced. Secondly, Renaissance art is harmonious and clear, easy to like.
  9. • How does Mannerist art differ from the art of the High Renaissance? (Chapter 22: Italy, 1500-1600).
    The quialities associated with mannerist art include: tension, emotionalism, elongation of the human figure, strained poses, unusual effects of scale, lighting or perspective vivd often lurid colours, In simple terms, mannerist art contained more! more movement, more expression, more drama, more sensuality, more colour....more almost everything.
  10. • Analyze the following: Albrecht Dürer, Self Portrait at 28, 1500. Why is Dürer considered to be the ―Leonardo‖ of the North? Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) is known as the German Leonardo because of his intelligence and curiosity. However, he explored the "soul" and not the outside world.
    • Nature views in the background
    • Renaissance man
  11. • How did Caravaggio’s work aid the Roman Catholic Church’s Counter Reformation efforts? (Chapter 24: Italy and Spain, 1600-1700). What effective techniques did he employ to bring about a change in art?
    • More real/ down to earth life
    • Catholic Church renovated old churches and constructed new ones in an effort to attract Protestant converts back to the faith
  12. • How does Baroque architecture (example: Figure 24-3 CARLO MADERNO, facade of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1606–1612) compare with the architecture of the High Renaissance (example: Figure 22-27 ANTONIO DA SANGALLO THE YOUNGER, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy, 1517-1546; completed by MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, 1546-1550)? (Chapter 24: Italy and Spain, 1600-1700).
  13. • Describe/analyze the work of REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. How does his religious imagery compare with the likes of MICHELANGELO and DA VINCI? (Chapter 25: Northern Europe, 1600-1700).ex: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Return of the Prodigal Son, 1665.
    • More to the story
    • not celabrating nature and human
    • very dark, sketch like
  14. • How do seventeenth-century paintings, such as The Milkmaid, 1657-58, by JOHANNES VERMEER (BELOW), change the course of Western art (hint: from sacred to secular/modern – Chapter 25)?
    • Shows working class
    • Erotic with skin
    • Real life
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