The flashcards below were created by user Hfowler51 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Parasite
    Smaller organism that lives on or inside&at the expense of a larger animal
  2. Host expense dependent upon:
    • Number of parasites
    • Kind&degree of injury they inflict
    • Vigor or nourishment of host
  3. phoresis
    one animal is transported by another

    Ex: flea on dog
  4. Communalism
    • 2 organisms live together
    • Neither parasitic to the other 
    • One or both may benefit
  5. Mutalsim
    • 2 organisms live together
    • Both benefit 

    Ex cattle egret cow is getting the bugs on its back eaten by the cattle egret – egrets getting lunch
  6. 2 types of parasitism
    • Multiple parasitism
    • Superparasitism
  7. Multiple parasitism
    Parasites of diff species parasitize a single host
  8. Superparasitism
    Excessive parasitization by same species
  9. Ascariasis
  10. Ancylostomiasis
  11. Trichuriasis
  12. Cutaneous Larval Migrans
    hookworm infection under the skin
  13. creeping eruption
    CLM (hookworm infection under the skin) in humans
  14. Visceral Larval Migrans
    ascarids (roundworms) in humans
  15. Nematodes of zoonotic concern
    • ascariasis (VLM)
    • ancylostomiasis
    • trichuriasis
    • CLM (creeping eruption in humans)
  16. transmammary
    passage of parasite via milk
  17. inUtero
    passage of parasite via placenta 

    synonyms: intrauterine, transovarian
  18. morula
    stage in development of egg post cell
  19. vermiform embryo
    stage of egg development after morula

  20. anemia
    reduction in RBC # and/or hemoglobin 

    2 types: clinical anemia, aplastic anemia
  21. parasite is sucking blood out of the dog faster than the dog can replace the blood. Treat – kill parasite and dog replaces the RBCs
    clinical anemia
  22. The body is not replacing the RBCs at the rate they are being destroyed or dying from longevity. Blood cells only last 110 days, but the bone marrow can’t replace them fast enough to equal the amount that is being destroyed
    aplastic anemia
  23. normocytic
    normal size of RBC

    (micro, macro)
  24. normochromic
    normal color of RBC

    (micro, macro)
  25. indirect life cycle
    requires intermediate host (generally arthropod)

  26. direct life cycle
    no intermediate host needed

    Ex: transmission via urine, vomit..
  27. proprietary name
    brand/trade name

    Ex: Tylenol, Pepto Bismol
  28. non-propietary name
    generic name

    Ex: Acetominophen, Bismuth
  29. chemical name
    organic formula for the drug with carbon, hydroxide, oxygen, and covalent bonds attached
  30. fecal score: 1
    • very hard and dry
    • individual pellets

    • no residue left on ground when picked up
    • requires much effort to expel from body

    (may be dehydrated)
  31. fecal score: 2
    • firm, but not hard
    • pliable (flexible)
    • segmented appearance

    little or no residue left on ground when picked up
  32. fecal score: 3
    • log-like
    • little to no segment

    • moist surface
    • leaves residue and holds form when picked up
  33. fecal score: 4
    • very moist (soggy)
    • distinct log shape

    leaves residue and loses form when picked up
  34. fecal score: 5
    • very moist
    • distinct shape present in piles rather than logs

    leaves residue and looses form when picked up
  35. fecal score: 6
    • texture but no defined shape
    • piles or spots

    leaves residue when picked up
  36. fecal score: 7
    • watery
    • no texture at all
    • flat
    • occurs in puddles
  37. parasites most commonly seen with naked eye in stool
    • ascarids (roundworm) spaghetti
    • cestodes (tapeworm) grain of rice
  38. in what region are heartworm disease and hookworms prevalent?

    (use of year-round preventatives)
  39. CAPC
    Companion Animal Parasite Council

    • foster animal&human health while preserving the human-animal bond through recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of parasitic infections
    • (create guidelines for optimal control of internal&external parasites that threaten the health of pets and people)
  40. 6 basic CAPC reccomendations
    • annual physicals
    • preventative flea&tick ASAP after birth
    • year-round broad-spectrum heartworm anthelmintics that have activity against zoonotic parasites
    • cooked food&fresh water
    • retest dogs heartworm status annually; test cats before and after placing on preventatives
    • fecal exams in adult pets 1-2 times a yr
  41. ancylostoma contracted by:
    • skin penetration-pp 14 days (infective is L3)
    • oral ingestion- pp 14 days
    • transmammary
    • intrauterine
    • mammalian paratenic host
  42. specific gravity:
    • ascarids&ancylostoma: 1.06
    • trichuris: 1.15
    • cestodes: 1.23
    • physaloptera: 1.24
  43. flotation medium most commonly used
    zinc sulfate
  44. diagnosis of ancylostoma
    anemia associated with eggs in feces
  45. treatments for ancylostomiasis
    • panacur
    • drontal plus
    • intercepter
    • sentinel
    • heartgard plus
    • iverhart plus
    • proheart 6
    • pyrantel pamoate
  46. control of ancylostomiasis
    • deworming
    • monthly preventatives
    • removing fecal contamination
  47. ancylostomas inhabit the
    small intestine

    producing dark tarry feces
  48. clinical picture of ancylostomiasis
    • dark starry tool
    • pale mm with anemia
    • GI irritation (diarrhea)
    • microcytic&hypochromic
    • playing today, motionless tmrw, dead 3rd day
    • only eggs seen in feces
  49. all nematodes infective stage 3 except
    ascarids (2)
  50. most common and virulent hooks
    Ancylostoma caninum
  51. misconception about hooks
    blood suckers!!!

    feed on mucosa of SI (glucose) resulting in bleeding of mucosal lining
  52. life cycle of ancylostoma caninum
    • consume 3rd stage larvae/penetrates
    • 2.larvae mature in SI and feed
    • 3.mature worms copulate&produce egg (2 wk after consumption, 4 after penetration)
    • 4.eggs passed in feces--hatch in 2-8 days
    • life cycle continues..
  53. larvae wandering through other organs (liver, lungs) may cause
    secondary hepatitis & pneumonia 
  54. PP of hooks
    14 days
  55. zoonosis
    • interchangeable with public health
    • animal has disease, shows symptoms,&can give to human

    *to be zoonotic the transmitter must be susceptible to the disease
  56. ppl susceptible to zoonosis
    • young
    • old
    • compromised immune systems
    • household with cat/dog
    • poor hygiene
    • works with animals
    • work in contaminated environments
    • pet owners failing to routinely deworm
    • vet professionals
  57. is the life cycle of hookworm direct/non direct?
  58. horses do not have
  59. Panacur
  60. Drontal Plus=
    febantel, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel
  61. Task =
  62. Nemex =
    pyrantel pamoate
  63. Interceptor/ Sentinel ; company; O, T, I; Animal
    milbemycin oxime/ milbemyin oxime and  lufenuron; Novartis; Oral; Both
  64. Revolution; company; O, T or I, Animal?
    selamectin; pfizer, Topical, Both
  65. Heartgard Plus; company; O, T, I; Animal
    ivermectin, pyrantel pamoate; Merial; Oral; Both
  66. Filabritis Plus; company; O,T,I; Animal
    oxibendazole, diethylcarbamazine citrate; Pfizer, Oral, Dog
  67. transtracheal migration associated with

    (excluding toxascaris leonina)
  68. ascarid infection can occur by:
    • consumption of eggs
    • consumption of 2nd stage larvae
    • transplacentally
    • transmammary
    • predation of paratenic host
  69. can ascarids penetrate?
  70. ascarid of raccoons
    Baylisascaris procyonis
  71. PP for ascarids
    21 days
  72. primary means of transmission to puppies:
    • ascarids: transplacental
    • ancylostoma: transmammary
  73. synonym for transmammary
  74. synonym for transplacental
    • transovarian
    • inUtero
  75. life cycle for ascarids
    • 1. Eggs/stage 2 (infective stage) is consumed
    • 2. Larva penetrates the stomach and enters the hepatic portal circulation of the liver
    • 3. Larva then goes to the lungs via the vena cava, right auricle, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery
    • 4. Larve enter the alveoli, are coughed up into the trachea and mouth, swallowed, molt once in the stomach and then go to the small intestines to mature and reproduce

    *if do not follow tracheal migration: encyst in muscle
  76. larval leak syndrome
    ascarids/ancylostoma that do not follow normal routes of migration encyst in muscles and become dormant (hypobiosis)

    during pregnancy, hormones (estrogen) will activate encysted larvae to move out of the muscle and either pass through placenta or mammary glands infecting inUtero/newborns
  77. term for dormant state of larvae
  78. signs of ascarid infection
    • GI upset (diarrhea, vomiting)
    • respiratory disorder (due to tracheal migration)
    • pot bellied
    • dull hair coat

    • puppies-abdominal cramps
    • constipation, obstipation, or dyschezia (painful evacuation)
  79. inhabit cecum
  80. PP of trichuris
    3 months
  81. specific gravity for flotation much higher with
    trichuris; Spg must be 1.145
  82. transmission of Toxascaris leonina occurs only with these 2 mechanisms
    • ingestion of eggs
    • ingestion of paratenic host
  83. hooks live in
    small intestine
  84. rounds live in
    small intestine
  85. live in mucosa of anterior 1/2 of small intestines
  86. life cycle of trichuris
    • 1. Eggs are passed in the feces
    • 2. egg develops into 2 cells and then into more cells
    • 3. cells form L1 larva (infective)
    • 4. Egg is then ingested by the host and hatches
    • 5. L1 develops in the small and large intestines (molt to L5)
    • 6. Adults migrate to the cecum and reproduce
  87. symptoms of trichuris infection
    • bright red blood in feces
    • anemia
    • abdominal pain
    • weight loss
    • flatulence
    • flank sucking
  88. treatment of choice for whipworms
    fenbendazole (Panacur)
  89. 3 forms of strongyloides
    • sexual male
    • sexual female
    • asexual/pathogenic female
  90. "threadworms"
  91. what color blood do strongyloides produce in feces?
    bright red 
  92. intestinal threadworm in dog
    strongyloides stercoralis
  93. intestinal threadworm in cat
    strongyloides tumefaciens
  94. strongyloides & micronema collectively

    (many of which live in decaying flesh, feces, dead plants, etc)
  95. life cycle of strongyloides
    • passing of larva of pathogenic female which then goes through 2 molts to infective 3rd stage
    • 3rd stage penetrate skin/consumed
    • 3rd stage migrate via circulation&lungs, going to intestines as 4th stage larvae
    • 4th molts to adult in upper 1/3 of SI
    • progeny may be shed in feces 7-20 days after infection
  96. can strongyloides penetrate?
  97. only parasites that can be passed as 1st stage larvae as well as in oviparous form
    lungworms and strongyloides
  98. lungworm of dog
    Eucoleus aerophila

    • "fox lungworm"
    • can be oviparous, pass larvae, direct or indirect life cycle through earthworm
  99. name the whips for Dog, Cat, man, pig, monkey
    • Dog- Trichuris vulpis
    • Cat- Trichuris campanula
    • Cat- Trichuris serrate
    • Man, pig, monkey- Trichuris trichura
  100. lungworm of the cat
    Aelurostrongylus abtrusus
  101. clinical picture of dogs infected with Eucoleus aerophila
    cough turns into pneumonia
  102. lungworm-natural host in the mink
    Paragonimus kellicotti

    life cycle: eggs coughed up&swallowed, pass in water then picked up by snail, crayfish eat snail, dog eats crayfish (cryafish=intermediate host)
  103. these lungworms do not require an intermediate host and 1st stage larvae are infective
    • Filaroides olseri
    • Filaroides hirthi
  104. esophageal worm
    Spirocerca lupi
  105. life cycle of spirocerca lupi
    • eggs deposited&passed in stool
    • eggs hatch only after ingestion by suitable coprophagic beetle
    • larvae become infective and encyst in tracheal tubes of beetle
    • beetle ingested by paratenic host (lizard)
    • parentenic host ingested by dog
    • larvae liberated in stomach, penetrate stomach wall, find their way via arterial system to aorta and then to the esophagus
  106. PP of spirocerca lupi
    6 months
  107. why do strongyloides produce bright red blood even though they live in the anterior half of the SI?
    rapid movement through the intestines
  108. when passed, their eggs often hatch in the intestines and emerge in larval form ready to penetrate the skin of another host, often a human
  109. parentenic/intermediate host of:
    • Eucoleus- earthworm
    • Aelurostrongylus- molluscs
    • Paragonimus- crayfish

    Filaroides- do not require
  110. Baermann apparatus used to diagnose
  111. treatment of strongyloides
    Ivermectin 1/4mL/40#
  112. symptoms of spirocerca lupi (esophageal worm)
    • vomiting
    • dysphagia
    • aortic aneurysm
    • esophageal neoplasms
    • --can lead to secondary pulmonary osteoarthropathy
  113. "stomach worm"
    • dog-physaloptera rara
    • cat-physaloptera praeputialis 
  114. physaloptera look like ascarids but differ in 5 ways:
    • 1. in stomach only
    • 2. C shape
    • 3. almost always in vermiform stage
    • 4. transparent eggs
    • 5. feed on mucosa and cause dark bleeding
  115. life cycle of physaloptera
    • indirect (beetles intermediate host)
    • adults are attached to mucosa of stomach causing rupture of the blood that appears dark as it passes all the way down the alimentary tract

    eggs pass in feces
  116. "eyeworm"
    Thelazia californiensis
  117. intermediate host flies of Thelazia californiensis (indirect)
    • Musca domestic
    • Musca lacrimalis
  118. do Thelazia penetrate?
    no, lie on top of eye
  119. life cycle of Dirofilaria immitis
    • 1. dog 1 has adults(S5) and microfilaria(S1)
    • 2. mosquito takes blood and picks up S1
    • 3. S1 molts to S3 in mosquito (time depends on temp)
    • 4. mosquito inserts S3&saliva into dog 2
    • 5. S3 molts to S4 in subcutaneous tissue
    • 6. S4 stays in SQ tissue for 100 days
    • 7. S4 molts to S5(pre-adult) and moves to pulmonary artery
    • 8. S5 stays in pulmonary artery for 80 days then molts to adult S5
  120. stomach worm shared by horse&ruminant
    Trichostrongylus axei
  121. intestinal thread worm shared by horse&pig
    Strongyloides westeri
  122. intestinal worms of horse (10)
    • P- Parascaris equorum
    • A- Anaplocephala (magna, perfoliata, mamilliana)
    • S- Strongyloides westeri
    • S- Strongylus (vulgaris, edentatus, equinus)
    • S- small strongyles
    • O- Oxyuris equi
  123. lung worm of horse
    Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
  124. stomach worms of horse (8)
    • Habronema (muscae, majus, microstoma)
    • Draschia megastoma
    • Trichostrongylus axei
    • Gastrophilus (intestinalis, nasalis, haemorrhoidalis)
  125. "horse bots"
    Gastrophilus intestinalis
  126. "nose bots"
    Gastrophilus haemorrhoidalis
  127. "throat bots"
    Gastrophilus nasalis
  128. lung worms of ruminants (4)
    • Dictyocaulus viviparous
    • Dictyocaulus filaria
    • Muellerius capillari
    • Protostrongylus rufescens
  129. stomach worms of ruminants (4)
    • H- Haemonchus (placei, contortus)
    • O- Ostertagia ostertagia
    • T- Trichostrongylus axei
  130. barber pole worm
    Haemonchus placei
  131. medium or brown stomach worm
    Ostertagia ostertagia
  132. small or bankrupt worm
    Trichostrongylus axei
  133. twisted stomach worm
    Haemonchus contortus
  134. intestinal worms of ruminants (12)
    • Bunostomum (phlebotomum, trigonocephalum)
    • Strongyloides papillosus
    • Oesophagostomum radiatum
    • Oesophagostomum columbianum
    • Moniezia (expansa, benedeni)
    • Nematodirus spathiger 
    • Cooperia (punctata, oncophor, pectinata)
    • Trichuris ovis
  135. cattle hookworm
    Bunostomum phlebotomum
  136. intestinal threadworm of ruminants
    Strongyloides papillosus
  137. nodular worm
    Oesophagostomum radiatum
  138. large bowel worm
    Chabertia ovina
  139. thread necked nematode
    Nematodirus spathiger
  140. tape worm of ruminants
    Moniezia expansa/ benedeni
  141. lung worms of swine (4)
    • Metastrongylus
    • A- apri
    • P- pudendodectus
    • E- elongates
    • S- salmi
  142. stomach worms of swine (3)
    • H- Hyostrongylus rubidus
    • A- Ascarops strongylina
    • P- Physocephalus sexalatus
  143. red stomach worm of swine
    Hyostrongylus rubidus
  144. intestinal worms of swine (10)
    • Ascaris suum
    • Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
    • Globocephalus urosubulatus
    • Strongyloides (westeri, ransomi, suis)
    • Oesophagostomum (dentatum, georgianum, brevicauderm)
    • Trichuris suis
  145. thorny-headed worm
    Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
  146. which strongyles migrate viscerally in horse?
    large strongyles (4th stage)

    presenting a true danger for colic and death.
  147. strongyles have direct or non-direct life cycle?
    direct (no intermediate host)
  148. strongyles belong to the family
  149. all large strongyles are known as
    "bloodworms" or "redworms"
  150. 3 species of the sub-family Strongyloidea of importance to us as health care professionals (equine)
    • Strongylus vulgaris
    • Strongylus equinus
    • Strongylus edentatus
  151. smallest and most dangerous intestinal parasite of equine
    Strongylus vulgaris

    viscerally migrates in cranial mesenteric artery
  152. strongyles located in
    mucosal lining (feed on glycoprotein)
  153. most common cause of death due to colic
    Strongylus vulgaris
  154. characteristics of Strongylus vulgaris
    • smallest of strongyles
    • most pathogenic
    • shortest PP (6 months)
    • smallest eggs
    • migration via intestinal arterial system leads to colic and death
  155. Strongylus vulgaris migration
    • 3rd stage larvae ingested by horse
    • larvae casts its covering and enters wall of cecum and ventral colon
    • larvae penetrates to submucosa, 3rd molts to 4th stage
    • 4th now penetrates small arteries and aorta and wanders progressively through to cranial mesenteric artery (a major supplier to intestines)
    • after 2-4 months of migration, 4th stage enters surrounding tissue and molts to 5th stage which enters lumen of colon
    • reproduction begins in a couple of months
  156. pathology of verminous arteritis (Strongylus vulgaris)
    4th stage larval migration results in inflammation of arteries, clots, and moving clots that block the flow of blood to the intestines resulting in death of bowel, no movement of enteric contents, colic, pain, and finally death
  157. collateral circulation
    body's ability to develop its own bypass to carry blood
  158. small strongyles do not
    migrate viscerally
  159. Strongylus edentatus
    3rd stage larvae burrows into the wall of the gut and reaches liver via portal veins. larvae make way back to cecum and into bowel lumen
  160. how do small strongyles differ from large?
    small larvae burrow into intestinal wall, lay dormant waiting for proper time to emerge. during encysted period are not susceptible to dewormers unlike large.
  161. equine pinworm
    Oxyuris equi

    • family: Oxyuroidea
    • direct life cycle
    • inhabit cecum and colon
    • pruritus ani(itchy anus) caused by eggs attached to skin around anus
  162. "seatworm of man"
    Enterobius vermicularis

    inhabits appendix, large intestine, female genitalia
  163. nicknames for Oxyuris equi
    • nocturnal worm
    • pinworm
    • rectal worm
  164. "the minute pinworm"
    Probstmayria vivipara

    • oxyurid of horse
    • entire lifecycle completed in one location:large intestines
    • adult females produce sexually mature offspring
    • no PP so multiply quickly
    • not considered pathogenic
  165. only ascarid in horse
    Parascaris equorum

    found in anterior part of small intestines
  166. direct lifecycle and transtracheal migration applies to this ascarid of the horse
    Parascaris equorum

    (2nd stage infective)
  167. transtracheal migration of ascarids
    • 1. Animal consumes 2nd stage larva (infective stage)
    • 2. Larva penetrates the stomach and enter the hepatic portal circulation of the liver
    • 3. The stage 2 larva will migrate through the liver parenchyma
    • 4. The larva will enter the vena cava and go to the lungs by way of the  right auricle, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery
    • 5. Once the larva goes to the lungs, it will migrate to the trachea where the S2 is coughed up into the pharynx and is swallowed
    • 6. The larva passes down the esophagus and into the stomach where it will molt to S3 and move to the small intestines. There it will molt to S4 then to S5 and begin reproducing
  168. three different forms of gastrophilus sp
    fly> eggs> larvae=1 yr total
  169. With Gastrophilus intestinalis, where are eggs laid and larvae burrow?
    • eggs laid: hairs of forelegs and shoulders
    • larvae burrow: dorsal surface of tongue
  170. lifecycle of Gastrophilus intestinalis
    • flies lay eggs on hairs of forelegs and shoulders
    • after 5 days, horse consumes egg by licking leg bc itches
    • larvae migrate to dorsal surface of tongue
    • larvae remain in tongue for 30 days then move to lumen to be swallowed
    • will attach to stomach and live for about 11 months
    • then release their grip and fall in feces. pupal cases will release botflies in 3-9 wks
  171. most common equine bot species
    Gastrophilus intestinalis
  172. why wait until 1 month after the first frost to deworm?
    waiting until 1 month after the 1st frost will allow the recently acquired larvae to complete their journey in the oral tissue and to reach the stomach
  173. With Gastrophilus nasalis, where are eggs laid and larvae burrow?
    • eggs laid: under chin (intermandibular spaces)
    • larvae burrow: between molars
  174. lifecycle of Gastrophilus nasalis
    • eggs laid on intermandibular spaces
    • hatch in 5 days, crawl to mouth then between lips
    • larvae burrow into pockets between molars
    • in 4 wks move to lumen and get swallowed
    • larvae then attach to duodenum
    • in 6-11 months, larvae release and pass out through feces. pupal cases hatch in 3-9 wks
  175. with Gastrophilus hemorrhoidals, where are eggs laid and larvae burrow?
    • eggs laid: lips
    • larvae burrow: cheeks
  176. lifecycle of Gastrophilus hemorrhoidals
    • flies lay eggs on lips
    • hatch in 2-4 days
    • when horse drinks water, penetrate epidermis of lips and burrow into mucus membranes of the mouth (cheeks)
    • in about 2 wks migrate out into lumen and end up in duodenum
    • in about 11 months lose grip and pass in feces in pupal cases. adult bot flies emerge in 3-9 wks
  177. meds to remove bots
    • Carbon disulfide- Parvex Plus
    • Dichlorvos- Equigard
    • Trichlorfon- Combot
    • Ivermectin- Ivermec (drug of choice)
  178. intestinal threadworm of horse/swine
    Strongyloides westeri

    • small intestinal mucosa of young foal
    • can be passed S1 or egg
  179. family Rhabdiasoidea
    all of the Genus Strongyloides
  180. Trichostrongylus axei belongs to the family
  181. Trichostrongylus axei is a stomach worm shared between
    horse and ruminants
  182. Strongyloides westeri is shared between
    equine and swine
  183. "minute stomach worm"
    Trichostrongylus axei

    • in abomasum
    • resulting in ulcers, weight loss, anorexia, hemorrhage, death
  184. Strongylus vulgaris can kill the horse due to 
    4th stage migration
  185. Super family Spiruroidea-has 4 members that share the stomach with T. axei
    • Habronema muscae
    • Habronema majus
    • Habronema microstoma
    • Draschia megastoma
  186. equine stomach worm that can cause tumor
    Draschia megastoma
  187. Habronema/Draschia fly or larvae can perpetrate the host in 2 ways
    • larvae on skin will invade tissue causing "summer sore"
    • flies that are consumed enter GI tract and produce catarrhal gastritis

    (ulcers are common result of Habronema, Draschia produce tumor)
  188. tapeworm transmission (equine)
    • eggs passed in horse feces
    • mites living on horse pasture consume tapeworm eggs from feces
    • grazing horses swallow mites and become infested
  189. Genus of coccidia in farm animals
  190. ruminant stomach worms
    • in abomasum "true stomach"
    • transmission: female lays eggs in abomasum, pass and develop into larvae, larvae crawl up blades of grass that are consumed by other ruminants, 2 molts in body of definitive host, mature male&female reproduce and pass their eggs.
    • lifespan= 1yr

    considered most pathogenic of helminths in ruminants
  191. Bunostomum phlebotomum
    • hook
    • active mucosal sucker, rupturing blood vessels along the way, creating anemic condition along with bloody diarrhea

    transmission: penetration, swallowing larvae from food or water
  192. hookworm of sheep and goats
    Bunostomum trigonocephalum
  193. "nodular worm"
    • sheep: Oesophagostomum columbianum
    • cow: Oesophagostomum radiatum
  194. why are Oesophagastomum nick named nodular worms?
    larvae are consumed, mature in intestines, penetrate the wall and form black nodules that can be seen through the mucosa

    (in sheep: nodules in large intestine, cow: in small, large, cecum, and colon)
  195. lungworm in the super family Metastrongyloidea since it has an indirect lifecycle requiring earthworm or snail
    Protostrongylus rufescens

    (most verminous pneumonias attributed to "lungworms" is a direct result of Protostrongylus rufescens, a common problem here due to flat land acquiring stagnant water)
  196. life cycle of lungworms
    • eggs laid in lungs
    • eggs coughed up, swallowed, and passed
    • eggs hatch in soil and larvae are consumed
    • larvae penetrate the intestine make their way via the blood to the lungs
  197. nematodes of swine
    • Ascaris suum-roundworm
    • Ascaris lumbricoides- in man
  198. lifecycle of ascaris suum
    • eggs consumed
    • egg hatches, larvae penetrate intestines
    • larvae enters hepatic portal circulation and grow
    • circulation carries larvae to lungs to migrate
    • larvae coughed up, swallowed, returns to intestines
    • there, adults breed and produce large # of eggs
    • eggs passed in feces and incubate in soil
    • eggs consumed..
  199. pathology of ascaris suum
    • "milk spots" caused by migration in liver
    • "thumps" coughing caused by transtracheal migration sounds like a thump
  200. what is significant about ascaris suum and lumbricoides?
    they do not feed on the mucosal lining like other other ascarids, they obtain nourishment solely from the contents of the pig/human intestines
  201. lifecycle that produces the condition known as "Thumps"
    trans-tracheal migration

    intestines>liver>heart>lungs>coughed up&swallowed>mature in intestines
  202. largest nematode of the human intestines/most prevalent parasite of humans
    Ascaris lumbricoides

    symptoms similar to Ascaris suum since lifecycle is similar: pneumonia, cough, pyrexia, rapid breathing, anorexia
  203. "common kidney worm" (swine)
    Stephanurus dentatus

    • worms occupy the kidney, produce oval eggs passed out with urine that incubate in the soil. the larvae can penetrate, be consumed, transmammary, or picked up by an earthworm as a facultative intermediate host
    • (direct/indirect lifecycle:earthworm)
  204. 4 tests for hw
    • 1. Direct Smear
    • 2. Modified Knot's method
    • 3. Difil (Millipore filtration) Test
    • 4. Microhematocrit Tube
  205. 2 occult tests
    • 1. Antibody
    • 2. Antigen
  206. 2 types of Antibody tests and differences
    • 1. MAT- microfilariae antibody test
    • 2. DAT- dirofilariae antibody test
  207. Antigen test is used for what animal
  208. Antibody test used for what animal
  209. ELISA
    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay--- Antigen test
  210. 4 HW symptoms
    • 1. coughing
    • 2. loss of stamina
    • 3. ascites
    • 4. Front legs bowed outward
  211. 4 Macrocyclic lactones
    • 1. Ivermectin
    • 2. Milbemycin oxime
    • 3. Selamectin
    • 4. Moxidectin
  212. The macrocyclic lactones are highly therapeutic possessing anthelmintic activity against _____. _______ and in some instances ______________.
    microfilaria. 3rd and 4th stage larvae; young adult hw (S5a)
  213. Proheart 6; company; O,T, I; Animal?
    Moxidectin; Ft dodge; Injectable; Dog
  214. Advantage Multi; Company; O, T, I; Animal; Name in Europe
    • Moxidectin and Imidacloprid; bayer; Topical; Dogs
    • Advocate
  215. 3 meds that react with microfilaria
    • 1. Diethylcarbamazine citrate
    • 2. Dichlorvos
    • 3. Milbemycin oxime
  216. 3 HW preventatives
    • 1. Diethylcarbamazine citrate
    • 2. Ivermectin
    • 3. Milbemycin
  217. What is Caval Syndrome AKA
    Dirofilarial Hemoglobinuria
  218. What is Wolbachia
    a rickettsia
  219. Flow of Blood (21)
    • 1. Left ventricle
    • 2. Aortic valve
    • 3. Aorta
    • 4. Arteries
    • 5. Arterioles
    • 6. Capillaries
    • 7. Venules 
    • 8. Veins
    • 9. Vena cavas
    • 10.Right Auricle
    • 11. Right Atrium
    • 12. Tricuspid valve
    • 13. Right ventricle
    • 14. Pulmonary valve
    • 15. Pulmonary artery
    • 16. lungs
    • 17. Pulmonary veins
    • 18. Left Auricle
    • 19. Left Atrium
    • 20. mitral valve
    • 21. Left Ventricle
  220. 8 Benzimendazoles
    • 1. Parbendazole
    • 2. Albendazole
    • 3. Cambendazole
    • 4. Thiabendazole
    • 5. Fenbendazole
    • 6. Mebendazole
    • 7. Oxifendazole
    • 8. Oxibendazole
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