Plaque assays Helminths urine analysis blood cells

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  1. What is a Bacteriophage? What does it consist of?
    • A bacteriophage is a virus that infects a bacterial cell.
    • Consists of proteins that encapsulate DNA or RNA genome
  2. What are plaques?
    Clearings caused by lysis of bacterial cells due to bacteriophages
  3. How are plaques and colonies similar? How are they different?
    • Similar because they both start with 1 cell and spread/grow from there. They can also be counted to determine the phage/bacterial concentration
    • They are different because one is a clearing of cell lysis and the other is a growth.
  4. Describe how one plaque forms
    • The bacteriophage attaches to cell wall
    • Injects viral genome into cell membrane 
    • Directs cell to mare more virus DNA
    • Once finished cell lysis and the viruses are released effecting more bacterial cells
    • This process continues
  5. Name the 3 classes of Helminths
    • Nematodes (roundworms)
    • Trematodes (ringworms)
    • Cesetodes (tapeworms)
  6. Characteristics of all Helminths
    • Multicellular organisms 
    • Free living or parasitic 
    • Have their own organ systems 
    • Similar life cycle
  7. Life cycle of helminths
    • Embryonic stage 
    • Larval stage 
    • Adult stage
  8. Dioecious
    Male and female helminths in separate organisms
  9. Monoecious
    • Hermaphroditic 
    • Male and female in a single organism
  10. General characteristics of Nematodes and an example
    • Elongated, cylindrical worms 
    • Free living in soil and freshwater 
    • Contain a smooth protective covering called a cuticle 
    • Headless 
    • Males are usually smaller than females 

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
  11. What organism is this? What disease does it
     Image Upload 1
    • Enterobius vermicularis 
    • Causes Enterobiasis
  12. About Enterobius vermicularis
    • Causes: Enterobiasis 
    • Host: Humans are the only host
    • Transmission: Fecal/oral
    • Symptoms: Itchy anus, sleep disruption, and abdominal pain
  13. Life cycle of Enterobius vermicularis
    • Eggs are lodged in perianal area
    • Eggs are ingested by humans
    • Larvae hatch in small intestines 
    • Adults mate in lumen of large intestine
    • Females migrate to perianal at night
  14. What Helminths is this? What disease does it cause?
    Image Upload 2
    • Schistosoma Mansoni 
    • Causes Shistosomiasis
  15. About Schistosoma Mansoni
    • Not found in the US
    • Causes: Schistosomiasis 
    • Transmission: Wading in contaminated water
    • Symptoms: Bloody diarrhea
    • Carried by a snail found in Africa, SE Asia, Mid East ect
  16. Life Cycle of Schistosoma Mansoni
    • Humans urinate/defecate in water
    • Eggs develop in snails
    • Worms can penetrate humans who enter water (cercariae)
    • Worm grown in blood vessels and produce eggs
    • Eggs travel to bladder and intestines
  17. What organism is this?Image Upload 3
    • Schistosoma Cercariae 
    • Larve of Schistosoma mansoni
  18. Which helminth is this? How can you tell? 
    Image Upload 4
    • Taenia Solium
    • Has a scolex (Distinctive head region with hooks to latch onto host)
  19. Taenia life cycle, symptoms, transmission
    • Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort
    • Transmission: Consuming larvae in undercooked beef or pork. Or ingesting eggs from other sources
  20. Eggs from which helminth? 
    Image Upload 5
    • Eggs of Schistosoma mansoni
    • Contain a distinctive lateral spine
  21. What is HUrBi plates used for?
    Urine analysis
  22. What are the general characteristics of the HUrBi plate?
    • 2 different sides
    • Contains chromogens in media to ID common UTI organisms
  23. Side 1 and side 2 of HUrBi plates
    • Side 1: grows gram (+)
    • Dise 2: grows gram (-)
  24. What manual can you use to distinguish between the organisms found on HUrBi?
    Bergey's manual
  25. What domain are Eukaryotes in?
    Domain Eukarya
  26. 2 types of White Blood Cells
    • Granulocytes 
    • Agranulocytes
  27. Granulocytes
    • One classification of WBCs
    • Includes Neutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils
  28. Agranulocytes
    • One classification of WBCs
    • Includes Monocytes and Lymphocytes
  29. Neutrophils
    • Most numerous of WBCs about 50%
    • Increase in numbers during bacterial infections
    • Phagocytes 
    • Segmented Nucleus 
    • 2X the site of RBCs
    • Granulocyte
  30. Eosinophils
    • Phagocytic 
    • Increase in number during allergic reaction or parasitic infections
    • Nucleus has TWO lobes 
    • 2X the size of RBCs
    • Granulocyte
  31. Lymphocytes
    • Cells of the immune system 
    • Cells are small
    • T-Cell and B-Cells
  32. Two types of lymphocytes
    • T-Cells: Migrate to thymus; In charge of cell mediated immunity 
    • B-cells: Produce antibodies
  33. Cell Mediated Immunity
    Immune response from the T-cells, they bind to the surface of other cells that display the antigen and trigger a response. 
  34. Basophils 
    • The least numerous WBC (1%)
    • Slightly larger then RBC
    • Have dark purple cytoplasmic granules that obscure the nucleus 
  35. Monocytes 
    • Largest of the WBCs
    • Horseshoe/indented nucleus 
  36. What cell is this? How can you tell?
    Image Upload 6
    • Basophil
    • Because it has purple granules in the cytoplasm obscuring the nucleus 
  37. What cell is this? How can you tell?
    Image Upload 7
    • Eosinophil 
    • Because it has a 2 lobes nucleus 
  38. What cell is this? How can you tell?
    Image Upload 8
    • Lymphocyte 
    • Its small, and it only have a thin halo of cytoplasm encircling their round nucleus 
  39. What cell is this? How can you tell?
    Image Upload 9
    • Monocyte
    • Its largest, and it has a slight indentation in the nucleus 
  40. What cell is this? How can you tell?

    Image Upload 10
    • Neutrophil 
    • Because it has a segmented nucleus 
  41. What is an Antigen?
    • Protein on the surface of RBC
    • Helps with ID and signaling 
  42. Your body develops antibodies against what?
    • Antigens that your RBC lack.
    • Someone with A blood, produce B antibodies 
  43. What does the Rh factor tell you?
    If your blood is + or -
  44. What type of WBC produce antibodies?
    B lymphocytes 
  45. What test is used to determine blood typing?
    Agglutination Test 
Card Set
Plaque assays Helminths urine analysis blood cells
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