What is species extinction
Elimination of all members of a species from earth, often due to human impacts.
What is extirpation?
Extinction of a species from a given area.
What are the 3 early human impacts on biodiversity?
- 1. Hunting/gathering
- 2. Invasive species
- 3. Ecosystem disruption
How did nomads impact biodiversity?
We were nomadic, therefore we were invasive species to the environment, we disrupted the habitats we explored as we explored and gathered
How did settlers disrupt the environment?
Settling led to overkill in certain areas.
How did our exploration disrupt the environment?
As we explored, more species went extinct. 1000 extinctions in last 100 years.
What 4 kinds of impacts can extinctions have on ecosystems?
- 1. Changes to symbiotic relationships
- 2. Web disruptions
- 3. Dominant and subdominant relationship changes
- 4. Ecosystem ecology changes
Name five reasons why extinctions are underestimated
- 1. We are bias towards size (we count larger animals)
- 2. We are bias towards islands
- 3. We are bias towards aquatic and terrestrial
- 4. Alive unless proven otherwise
- 5. We can't quantify things that went extinct without our knowledge
Name four main threats to biodiversity from humans
- 1. Direct exploitation
- 2. Habitat loss
- 3. Invasive species
- 4. Extinction cascades
Hunting, fishing, and gathering
Industrialization, deforestation, clearcutting,selection system, shelterwood system
Ex: yellowstone wolves
Species introduced to an environment that they are not native to.
Example: Australian cane toad
The extinction of one species will lead to another
Think of whale lice
Tragedy of the commons
Unregulated land and resources will be exploited for personal gain
Since everyone has access, the value of land and resources will go down, unlike free riders
- Establish property
If the majority of the population is abiding by the law, one or two people can break the rules unnoticed.
Example: Elephant tusks?
A human centered view on the world
A human and animal view of the world
A human, animal and ecosystem view of the world. The big picture
To use, but wisely.
The scientific study of nature and the status of earth by looking at impacting factors and reacting appropriately
Applying genetics to conserve and restore an ecosystem before inbreeding depression occurs
Who "coined" conservation?
Gifford Pinchot, of the U.S. Forest Service
What is restoration?
Restoration occurs when conservation fails, or could occur as a trade off.
Is restoration successful?
In the event of UNE, restoration was not successful.
What does the EPA do? (List of 5)
- 1. Makes rules
- 2. Helps state meet goals
- 3. Monitors environmental policy
- 4. Research
- 5. Educate
What is Preservation
To set aside resources and restrict access through parks and refuges
Why should we establish parks and reserves?
- 1. Ecotourism
- 2. Science
- 3. Education
- 4. Preserve species/landmarks
- 5. Protect biodiversity
Level of protection?
- Established in 1916
- No limited public access, areas without human contact, no industry
When? How many? Level of protection?
- Established in 1903.
- 550 exist
- No human contact. Maintained by fish and game officers, no hunting and fishing.
When? How many? Level of protection?
- 756 Exist
- Public access, campgrounds, no industry
Challenges to preserving?
- -Restricting access could lead to rule breakers (where's the incentive)
- -Science vs. policy
- -Creates islands
What is a vernal pool?
A fresh, seasonal, standing water wetland with no inlet or outlet.
Why are vernal pools important?
They are habitats for animals to lay their eggs.
What species of plants are found in vernal pools?
Princess pine (faculative, occurs 67-99% of the time)
Skunk cabbage - Obligate (occurs 99% of the time)
What species of animals are found in vernal pools
- Salamanders (both spotted and blue spotted)
- wood frogs
- fairy shrimp
Why should we conserve or protect them?
How do we conduct surveys on them?
- Fill out form
- Take photos
- Get registered
Why are macroinverts a good indicator of a pond's health?
Bottom of the food chain, feed on algae in the pond. The more toxic the pond is, the more algae it will have, and the more pollution tolerant species it will contain.
Is low or high biodiversity of macroinverts a good sign for a pond?
- Low = bad (3 letter)
- High = good (4 letters)
What is the biotic value index?
A scale of showing the quality of the environment by the types of organisms within it.