psychology ch 14 study guide

  1. Eclectic psychotherapy
    • a form of psychotherapy that involves drawing on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem.
    • use of multiple techniques, treatment and therapy. draw from various types of therapy and techniques. such as stuff from Freud, roger, Pavlov, etc.
  2. two basic types of therapy:
    • 1) Psychotherapy = talk therapy
    • 2) medical or biological treatment = Drug therapy or surgery
  3. Free association:
    Dream interpretation: 
    • Free association: the client reports every thought hat enters the mind and the therapist looks for recurring themes.
    • allow the patient to talk about whatever they want; an uninterrupted stream of consciousness
    • Dream interpretation: the therapist looks for dream elements that symbolize unconscious conflicts or wishes.
    • Using dreams to look into your unconscious, analyzing a persons unconscious desires and motives

    • Resistance: reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material... when a overly negative emotional reaction occurs, it is because it is an important. such as avoiding topics of your father, because of problems with father.
    • Transference: occurs when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client's life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies.

    transferring feelings onto your Therapist or others. feelings of happiness, sadness or others because of relating to you mother, father etc.
  4. Central goal of Freudian therapy:
    for the client to understand the unconscious in a process called developing insight.

    • understanding how the unconscious affects the conscious...
    • Getting issues from the unconscious, they discuss it, and the patient feels better
  5. the role of therapist in Client centered/Rogerian therapy
    • the therapist tends not to provide advice or suggestions about what the client should be doing. instead, the therapist paraphrases the client's words, mirroring the client's thoughts and sentiments...
    • create an equal environment so the patient/client feel comfortable sharing
  6. role of the client in rogerian therapy
    it is the patients role to participate and be open and honest.
  7. The basic assumption to rogerian therapy/humanistic therapy
    • 1) assume that psychological problems stem from feelings of alienation and loneliness and that these feelings can be traced to failure to reach one's potential.
    • 2) assumes that all individuals have a tendency towards growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist....
    • people are basically good, unless some developmental block or something gets in the way.
  8. three qualities that rogers says must be present in any effect therapist
    1) unconditional positive regard - the therapist must provide a nonjudgmental, warm, and accepting environment in which the client can feel safe when expressing his or her thoughts and feelings. 

    2) empathy - trying to understand the client by getting inside his or her way of thinking, feeling, and understanding the worlds...

    enables the therapist to better appreciate the client's apprehensions, worries, or fears.

    3) Congruence - or being open and honest in the relationship...Genuine
  9. the basic assumptions of Ellis' rational emotive/cognitive therapy
    • cognitive therapy: a form of psychotherapy that involves helping a client identify and correct any distorted thing about self, others, or the world.
    • Making sense of your feelings and thoughts, and changing your belief system.
    • identify and change faulty belief systems
    • done with the use of Cognitive restructuring
  10. Cognitive restructuring:
    • Cognitive restructuring: involves teaching clients to question the automatic beliefs, assumptions, and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs...
    • changing your belief system 

    thinking about something in a different way, so instead of being bad at writing English papers, i think i'm good at writing papers, but it takes me a lot longer to write good papers.
  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy

    Cognitive therapy 

    behavioral therapy
    • Cognitive behaviorist therapy (CBT) - a blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies...
    • wants to know what your thinking, and how that affects your behavior and attempt to change both
    • problem focused, and action oriented,
    • Behavioral Therapy - assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt mal-adaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors.
    • not interested in what your thinking, only behavior and actions. (pavlov) 

    cognitive therapy - focuses on helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world...

    only interested in changing your thoughts, so to change how you feel on about your thoughts/behaviors.
  12. what are the basic assumptions of behavioral therapies
    behavioral therapies: assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that the relief is achieved through changing behaviors
  13. Wolpe's methods in systematic desensitization:
    • slowly or gradually acclimating or introducing a patient to a situation for
    • a phobia or anxiety about something.
  14. Systematic desensitization
    • is a type of counter-conditioning behavior therapy used to help overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders. The goal of this process is for the individual to learn how to cope with, and overcome fear
    • Similar to exposure therapy, but the patient is near exposed to the fear, only talk about the fear.
  15. exposure therapy:
    • Exposure Therapy involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response.
    • Similar to Systematic desensitization, but the patient actually gets exposed to the fear, as opposed to just talking about it
  16. Token economies
    Token economies - involves giving clients "tokens' for desired behaviors, which they can later trade for rewards. effective while system in place, but not maintained when the reinforcement is discontinued

    anytime a reward that is not monetary occurs for good behavior - such as AA - chip, Employee of the month - picture, children get stickers

    Used with operant conditioning to change behavior
  17. Biomedical therapy
    • 1)Drug therapy (psychopharmacology): the study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms... examples: Antipsychotic, antianxiety, antidepressants
    • 2)Herbal and natural products: not effective
    • 3) procedural therapies: such as ECT, TMS, Phototherapy
    • 4) Psychosurgery: lobotomy and cutting the corpus callosum
  18. ECT:
    • psychosurgery: The surgical destruction of specific brain areas. -rarely used, lobotomy, and cutting the corpus callosum to avoid seizures
    • electroconvulsive  therapy (ECT): also known as shock therapy, is a treatment that involves inducing a mild seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain. used for depression
    • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) - a treatment that involves placing a powerful magnet over a person's scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain... used for depression
    • Phototherapy: involves repeated exposure to bright light. used to treat seasonal affect depression (SAD)
  19. antipsychotic:


    Antipsychotic: used for schizophrenia; are believed to block dopamine receptors. some also block serotonin receptors

    Antianxiety: used for anxiety; Sedative that facilitates the action of the Neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) placing a calming effect

    antidepressant: used for depression; allow for more serotonin.
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psychology ch 14 study guide
psychology ch 14