biopsych final exam

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  1. 4 monoamines
    • dopamine
    • serotonin
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
  2. main brain structure dealt with emotion
  3. james lange theory
    event-appraisal or cognitive aspect-action or behavior interacted physiogically-emotional feeling of fear
  4. pure autonomic failure
    • no emotions 
    • completely/ to little reactions to 
    • nervous system doesnt  control regular reactions
  5. panic attack
    hard to breathe and heart race
  6. insula w/ what emotion
    • part of the limbic system
    • for disgust and taste
  7. behavioral activation system
    • left hemisphere (frontal and temporal lobes)
    • dealt with happiness and anger
    • low/moderate automatic arousal
  8. behavioral inhibition system
    • right hemisphere (frontal and temporal lobes)
    • increase arousal, inhibits actions, and to stimulate fear/disgust
  9. more activity in left hemisphere w/ emotion
  10. activity in right hemisphere
    • prone to unpleasant situations
    • soically withdrawn and less satisfied
  11. right vs. left hemisphere w/ emotions
    right is more linked to emotions expressing and recognizing
  12. damage to right temporal cortex
    trouble recognizing emotions
  13. phineas gage and prefrontal cortex damage
    • poor decision making
    • loss of emotion along with burst of anger
  14. ventromedial prefrontal cortex
    • center for guilt
    • damage people dont feel guilty
  15. parts of the limbic system
    thalamus, globus pallidus, caudate nucleaus, putamen, hippocampus, amygdala
  16. testosterone effects on emotion
    decrease in recognition of emotion in faces but increase responses in emotional ares of brain
  17. turnover
    amount of a NT that is released and replaced like reuptake of serotonin
  18. low serotonin release is linked with what emotion
    generally more aggresive and angry
  19. high vs low serotonin reuptake and aggression
    low- die easier, more fighting but can become more dominant with that aggresion. remove inhibition.

    high- less aggressive but is fine and low key status. inhibit impulses
  20. serotonin comes from
    break down of trypyophans in protiens
  21. diet alterations to level serotonin
    increase consomption of tryptophan or decrease consomption of high amino acid that work with tryptophan in the brain.
  22. movement of fear through the brain
    senses from temporal lobe (auditory and visual cortex) go through the thalmus- baso/lateral amygdala-central amygdala-pons-reflex
  23. where is the startle reflex located
  24. stria terminalis
    connects nuron tissue in the amygdala with other limbic systems
  25. kluver-bucy syndrome.
    • damaged amygdala
    • monkeys were less scared of usual things
  26. emotion with faces experiment
    easier to understand directed towards viewer except fear is understood better from a side
  27. when looking into a fear faced
    people with damaged amygdala....
    focus on nose/mouth instead where it rely all on the eyes
  28. panic disorder
    frequent anxiety attacks and arousal of the sympathetic nervous system
  29. sympathetic vs parasympathetic
    • para- calms
    • sympa- helps and raises arousal "fight or flight"
  30. men vs woman and age with anxiety
    higher in woman and in adolescents
  31. brain structure involved with anxiety
    abnormalities in the hypothalmus
  32. NT involved with panic disorder
    no release of gaba- more orexin
  33. orexin and gaba
    orexin is used for arousal and staying awaka and gaba inhibits this from overpowering
  34. drugs used to treat anxiety
    benzodiazepine (valium, librium, xanax)
  35. how do drugs work to treat anxiety
    release more gaba to stop orexin
  36. when Gaba receptors open up
    • chloride channels fluctuate easier
    • hince why chloride is a chenical in the benzodiazapines
    • hyperpolarize cell and inhibit the potential
  37. other recreational drug that helps anxiety
  38. alocohal and benzodiazopine
    anti anxiety medication that binds to GABA a to open up chloride channel and to inhibit
  39. general adaptaion syndrome
    3 stages
    • 3 stages to stress
    • alarm
    • resistance
    • exhaustion
  40. alarm stage
    readying the body with moderate emergency activity.
  41. resistance stage
    • sympathetic system slows down, 
    • release of cortisol to keep up alertness
  42. cortisol
    released by adrenal cortex to bring down sympathetic nervous system and to keep up alertness
  43. exhaustion stage
    vulnerable inactive stage. no stage
  44. HPA axis
    hypothalmus, pituitary and adrenal cortex
  45. stress horomone
  46. stress and the immune system
    • high amounts can impair it and harm you
    • low amounts can increase and build memory as well
  47. leukocytes
    white blood cells
  48. b cells in the immune system
    • bone marrow release
    • antibodies that recognize antigens and attacks unfamiliar ones
  49. antigens
    protiens your body makes and regognizes
  50. t cell
    • thymus gland
    • mature and multiply
  51. natural killer cell
    attack infected cells and tumor cells. kill all intruders where b and t attack certain ones
  52. cytokines
    from hypothalmus to give alert that there is a problem or feeling ill

    produce fever, loss of hunger, less sex drive, and more sleepy
  53. stress on the hippocampus
    high activity of cells can make it hard to remember and higher metabolism and cause apoptosis or overstimulation. more cytokines released.
  54. ptsd patients or anxiety hippocampus
    smaller hippocampus
  55. ptsd cortisol levels and smaller hippocampus
    • lower than normal
    • naturally have small hippocampus to begin with leading to easier access to ptsd
  56. agoraphobia
    fear of public places and having a panic attack in front of others
  57. early onset depression linked to genes
    will have higher chance of depression and other inherited psychological disorders
  58. late onset depression and genes
    high probability circulatory prorblems
  59. serotonin gene expressing depression
    short form- react to stressful situations by being depressed but no absence of stress does not decrease depression

    in other words can still be randomly depressed and does not increase chance of happyness
  60. postpardum depression
    depressed after birth
  61. depression links with the 2 hemispheres
    decreased activity in left hemisphere and increased in right
  62. 3 types of antidepressants
    tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  63. tricyclics
    block the transporter protien that allow the 4 monoamines to reuptake

    leaving NT in the synaptic cleft- and stimulating post synaptic neuron
  64. bad effects of tricyclics
    • block histamine, ach, and sodium channels 
    •  leading to drowzy, dry mouth and biofunction, and heart irregulatory. most unpleasant side effects
  65. MAOI vs SSRI
    SSRI- focus on serotonin 

    MAOI- block the enzyme monoamine oxidase in presynaptic terminal from breaking down the monoamines into their metabloic sources
  66. myth serotonin levels in depression
    a myth. people who are depressed may have higher serotonin and is just irregular
  67. bdnf
    brain derived neurotrophic factor
  68. brain derived neurotrophic factor
    neurotrophins for brain plasticity, learning, and growing new neurons in hippocampus
  69. antidepressants and bdnf
    spring of new neurons and neurogensis. better learning.
  70. reaction with antidepressants
    immediatly but mood correlated may take weeks to change
  71. ECT
    • elecrical compulsive therapy
    • used in schizo and epileptic people
    • everyother day for  2 weeks small shock.
    • helps depression unless relapsed
  72. depression and sleep
    people who are depressed, sleep less. more REM sleep and waken earlier.

    being sleep deprived may help the depression till next time. more practical to sleep earlier so you can wake earlier
  73. ECT in right hemishpere
    unless moderated can lead to sufficient memory loss
  74. bipolar characteristics
    mania with depressed states
  75. mania charcteristic
    restless, rambling speech, and no inhibition
  76. lithium salt
    • treat bipolar
    • mood stabilizer
    • stabilize glutamate- mania activator
  77. 2 ways treat bipolar
    anticonvulsant drugs and lithium
  78. seasonal affective disorder
    messed up circadian rhythem and seasonal depression.
  79. treating sad
    bright lights
  80. schizophrenia
    delusins, hallucinations, disorganized speech and or behaviors, weak social, speech, and emotional responces.
  81. negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia
    positive- present behaviors that should not be there (delusions and hallucinations)

    negative- symptoms that are not there that should be (weak emotion, social, and speech life)
  82. hallucinations come from
    disorganized connections between cortex, cerebellum, and  thalamus
  83. men and woman with schizophrenia
    more common in men
  84. differences in brain with schizophrenia
    • less grey and white matter
    • larger ventricles (fluid space)
    • small thalmus
    • prefontal cortex and hippocampus are small
  85. left vs right hemishphere in schizophrenia
    left is usually larger but in schzo its equal or right side is largee
  86. why does it take longer to see schizophrenia
    late development of the prefrontal cortex
  87. chlopromazine
    releives dellusions and hallucination
  88. treating schizophrenia
    block dopamine receptors
  89. dopamine and schizo
    turnover is elevated- faster release and reuptake with quicker synthesizing
  90. glutamate and schizophrenia
    • low release of glutamate
    • dopamine inhibits glutamate
    • increase of dopamine and decrease of glutamte have same effect
  91. glutamate and dopamine
    • dopamine inhibits glutamate
    • glutamte excite neurons that inhibit dopamine
    • low glutamte and high dopamine is equally effective
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biopsych final exam
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