Ecology final set IV

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  1. 4 gases that occur in the atmosphere and cycle globally
    • carbon
    • oxygen
    • sulfur
    • nitrogen
  2. 3 less mobile elements cycle on a more local level
    • phosphorus
    • potassium
    • calcium
  3. what element do sea turtles recycle back into the earth
    calcium from eggs
  4. what is phosphorous used for
  5. trees hide CO2 from the atmosphere
  6. sediment from the bottom of the ocean being uplifted
    • geological uplifting
    • long term
  7. short term- biogeochemical cycling
    • loop cycle
    • gulls eat fish, poop on land
  8. poop that's used for phosphate fertilizer
  9. sources that gives off material
    burning fossils
    increased carbon
  10. what plays a key role in general pattern of chemical cycling
    • decomposers
    • detritivores
  11. what changes the rates at which nutrients cycle in different ecosystems
    rates of decomposition
  12. Story of Hubbard Brook, NH
    • resource center w/ water sheds
    • clear cutting trees
    • N2 60 times more then should be because trees take up the nitrogen from the soil
  13. rain type gutters that are buried in the hill and measure flow through the soil
  14. Where is decomposition highest?
    • tropics
    • more H2O + more heat = more decomposition
  15. what is the main cause of acid precipitation
    combustion of fossil fuels
  16. what two chemicals in rain and snow are damaging ecosystems downwind from industries?
    nitric and sulfuric acid
  17. what is it called when pollution is coming from industrial sources
    transboundry pollution
  18. the amount of living matter in a given habitat, expressed either as the weight of organisms per unit area or as the volume of organisms per unit volume of habitat.
  19. how long until chemicals leave the body
    clearance rate
  20. how long chemicals stay in the body
    residences time
  21. where in the trophic levels is toxins more concentrated
    higher levels, where biomass is lower
  22. place where birds pick up radioactive material
    cooling ponds
  23. what time of the year is CO2 higher and lower?
    • lower in the summer
    • higher in the winter
    • bc plants breathing in summer, taking in CO2
  24. graph used for monitoring CO2 levels in the atmosphere, on plaques
    Keeling Curve
  25. another close planet with high levels of CO2
    venus-and its extremely hot
  26. what shape is the world
    oblique sphere
  27. tallest mountain from base
    Mauna Kea
  28. tallest mountain from sea level
  29. ozone at street level
  30. two things ozone layer protects humans from, health wise
    • cataracts
    • skin cancer
  31. percent our ozone has decreased in the last 20 years
  32. what deal reduced CFC emissions
    Montreal Protocol
  33. place where ozone is very thin certain times of the year
    atmosphere hole
    • Australia
    • ozone pulled by S. Pole
  34. how much of current plant and animal species will disappear in the next 100 years if continued at current rate
    more than half
  35. club of species with fewer than 100 individuals
    • Hundred Heartbeat Club
    • Havard biologist E. O. Wilson
  36. 3 levels that need biodiversity
    • genetic
    • species types
    • ecosystem
  37. this helps us to recognize the value of biodiversity for its own sake
    human biophilia
  38. some practical benefits for humans to not decrease biodiversity
    • pharmaceuticals
    •  aspirin- willow trees
    • inhibits cancer-periwinkle alkaloids
  39. encompass all the processes through which natural ecosystems and their species help sustain human life
    ecosystem services
  40. 4 examples of ecosystem services
    • purification of air & water
    • detoxification and decomposition of wastes
    • cycling of nutrients
    • moderation of weather extremes
  41. 4 major threats to biodiversity
    • habitat destruction
    • introduced species
    • overexploitation
    • disruptions of "interaction networks
  42. what is the greatest threat to biodiversity throughout the biosphere
    human alteration of habitat
  43. how have human alteration destroyed habitats
  44. tourist from Germany introduced disease to bats
    • white nose syndrome
    • lack of bats=more mosquitos & pollinators
  45. ways humans are trying to make up for fragmented land
    • habitat corridors
    • will help maintain biodiversity
  46. when companies clear cut forests the piece of land they leave
    habitat island
  47. whats the problem with habitat islands
    • too small
    • increase extinction rate
  48. 5 introduced invasive species
    • zebra mussels
    • purple loosestrife
    • Kudzu
    • nutria
    • brown tree snakes
  49. story of zebra mussels
    • come from ballistic water in ship belgers
    • out compete/source with natives
  50. story on purple loose strife
    • invasive species planted because their pretty
    • outcompeted with cattails which are food source for bugs
    • Beetles eat them, so now bugs on road
  51. beetles only eating purple loosestrife
    host specific
  52. story on brown tree snakes
    • stowed away on plane tires to Guam
    • eat eggs & lizards
    • killed 12 bird species & 6 lizard species off
    • filled rats with Tylenol and pushed out of planes with parachutes
    • get stuck in trees, brown snakes eat and die
  53. story on Kudzu in south carolina
    • planted by construction and roads to stop erosion, grows a foot a day
    • over weekend plant would be over cars, telephone poles ect
  54. Nutria story
    • brought here for fur trade
    • crates broke they escaped and are now responsible for the mud flats
  55. human harvesting of wild plants or animals at rates exceeding the ability of populations of those species to rebound
  56. example of overexploitation
    bluefish tuna
  57. the most we can take and will still sustain to the following year
    maximum sustainable yeild
  58. 4 examples of overexploitation
    • blue fin tuna
    • cape cods lack of cod
    • elephants getting killed for tusks
    • long line fisheries-killing other species in the process
  59. type of biology that attempts to sustain the biodiversity of entire communities, ecosystems, and landscapes
    conservation biology
  60. part of landscape ecology, which seeks to make biodiversity conservation part of land-use planning
    ecosystem management
  61. type of species that shapes the whole landscape
    keystone species
  62. 3 examples of keystone species
    • beavers
    • wolves
    • alligators
  63. 2 types of human activity that alter landscape structure
    fragmentation and edges
  64. 3 reasons why are corridors important
    • reduces inbreeding
    • genetic bottleneck
    • gene pool diversity
  65. two types of corridors
    • pipe under roads
    • bridges over roads
  66. 2 protected hot spots
    • madagascar
    • NW Hawaiian Island National Marine Monument
  67. small area with great concentration of endemic species and many endangered and threatened species
    biodiversity hot spot
  68. biodiversity islands in a sea of habitat degraded by human activity
    nature reserves
  69. issues with nature reserves
    • larger animals require more extensive habitats to sustain a population
    • grizzly bears in Yellowstone
  70. model that recognizes that conservation often involves working in landscapes that are largely human dominated
    zoned reserve model
  71. place where conservation of biodiversity was facilitated with government and private citizens
    Costa Rica
  72. 2 problems with nature reserves
    • hunters waiting at federal reserve line
    • hunters on air planes shooting polar bears
  73. how much has costa rica set aside for zoned reserve land?
    • 27%
    • 1%
  74. Biophilia
    • basic connection w/nature
    • stewardship of the planet
    • separate wants from needs
Card Set
Ecology final set IV
set 4
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