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  1. cognition
    the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  2. concept
    a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
  3. prototype
    a mental image or best example of a category
  4. algorithm
    a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
  5. heuristic
    a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but more error prone than algorithms
  6. insight
    a sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy based solutions
  7. confirmation bias
    a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contrary evidence
  8. mental set
    a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
  9. intuition
    an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
  10. availability heuristic
    estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
  11. overconfidence
    the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
  12. belief perseverance
    clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
  13. framing
    the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
  14. language
    our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
  15. phoneme
    in language. the smallest distinctive sound unit
  16. morpheme
    in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word, or part of a word (such as a prefix)
  17. grammar
    in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand each other
  18. babbling stage
    beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
  19. one-word stage
    the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
  20. two-word stage
    beginning at about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements
  21. telegraphic speech
    early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-"go car"-using mostly nouns and verbs
  22. aphasia
    impairment of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
  23. Broca's area
    controls language expression; speaking and movements involved
  24. Wernicke's area
    controls language reception and language comprehension/ understanding
  25. linguistic determinism
    Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
  26. emotion
    a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
  27. James-Lange theory
    the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
  28. Cannon-Bard theory
    the theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
  29. two-factor theory
    the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label arousal
  30. polygraph
    a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses
  31. facial feedback effect
    the tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness
  32. catharsis
    emotional release.  The catharsis hypothesis maintains that releasing aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
  33. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
    people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
  34. subjective well-being
    self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
  35. adaptation-level phenomenon
    our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
  36. relative deprivation
    the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
  37. health psychology
    a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
  38. stress
    the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
  39. general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
    Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases-Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion
  40. tend and befriend
    under stress, people (especially women) often provide support to others (tend) and bond with and seek support from others (befriend)
  41. psychophysiological illness
    literally "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness such as hypertension and headaches
  42. psychoneuroimmunology
    the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together effect the immune system and resulting health
  43. coronary heart disease
    the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart; the leading cause of death in many developed countries
  44. Type A
    Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
  45. Type B
    Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
  46. coping
    alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
  47. problem-focused coping
    attempting to alleviate stress directly-by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor
  48. emotion-focused coping
    attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
  49. psychological disorder
    deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
  50. medical model
    the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
  51. DSM-IV-TR
    the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, with an updated "text revision"; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
  52. anxiety disorders
    psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
  53. generalized anxiety disorder
    an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
  54. panic disorder
    an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and frightening sensations
  55. phobia
    an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation.
  56. OCD
    an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and actions
  57. post-traumatic growth
    positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
  58. mood disorders
    psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
  59. major depressive disorder
    a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods or diminished interest or pleasure in most activities along with at least four other symptoms
  60. mania
    a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
  61. schizophrenia
    a group of several disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and behaviors
  62. psychosis
    a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
  63. delusions
    false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
  64. dissociative disorders
    disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
  65. dissociative identity disorder (DID)
    a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
  66. personality disorders
    psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
  67. antisocial personality disorder
    a personality disorder in which a person (usually man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
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