Brain matters Final

  1. Nerves from superior olive connect with inferior colliculus via
    the lateral lemniscus
  2. Mostly sensitivity to sound
    – Inferior colliculus
  3. conscious processing
    Auditory signals that reach the MGN (medial geniculate nucleus) are destined for
  4. Where conscious perception begins
    primary auditory cortex
  5. The organ that detects airborne chemicals
    Olfaction (smell)
  6. The organ that responses to chemicals in the mouth
    Gustation (taste)
  7. Pheromones
    Chemicals that influence that behavior of conspecifics (members of the same species)

    False:Evidence of human pheromones” – Pinel not James – Changes in olfactory sensitivity across menstrual cycle and synchronization of menstrual cycles
  8. More than 90% of communication is non-verbal
  9. Humans are mainly visual communicators
  10. Less cortex devoted to audition than vision
  11. a sensory Homunculus
    A homunculus is a sensory map of your body, so it looks like an oddly proportioned human
  12. Darwin’s theory on the evolution of emotional expression
    Emotions evolved from behaviors that indicated what an animal would do next
  13. James-Lange theory
    “Emotional” stimuli detected in brain -> body reacts to “emotional” stimuli -> brain experiences emotion in response to body’s reaction
  14. Cannon-Bard theory
    “Emotional” stimuli elicit independent responses from the brain (experience emotion) and the body
  15. Individuals with cut spinal cord cannot feel emotion
  16. Body’s responses can trigger emotions
  17. Modern theory
    Each of the 3 major principal factors governing an emotional response influences the other 2 principal factors
  18. inhibits and directs aggression
  19. hyperthalamas
    is critical for performing aggression
  20. The limbic system includes
    Cingulate cortex septal area hypothalamus  hippocampus  Amygala
  21. Papez proposed existence of limbic system • Controlled expressions of emotions via
    • hypothalamus connections
    • Basis for physiological dimension of emotion
  22. limbic system
    Controlled expressions of emotions via hypothalamus connections – Basis for physiological dimension of emotion

    Mediated perception of emotions via cortical connections – Basis for behavioral/psychological dimension of emotion
  23. Damaged limbic system (amygdala)
    – Kulver-Bucy syndrome – Phineas Gauge – Amygdala mediates “hedonic response” to stimuli » Nucleus accumbens assigns hedonic value to stimuli
  24. Emotional specificity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    Not all emotions have the same pattern of ANS activity (ex. Heart rate, pupil dilate) – Polygraphy (lie detector) • Employs autonomic nervous system indexes of emotion – Success rates range from 40-90% » Can detect ANS response-but what does that mean?
  25. ? cortex is associated with emotions
  26. – Frontal lobotomy
    lose emotions
  27. Frontal lobe lesions
    produce fewer facial expressions
  28. ?hemisphere lesions produce greater emotional deficits than ?hemisphere
    Right hemisphere lesions produce greater emotional deficits than left hemisphere
  29. Right hemisphere lesions
    Disrupt perception of facial expressions • Disrupt perception of tone of voice (prosody)
  30. how the “contract” command gets to the alpha motor neuron
    Axons of alpha motor neuron release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach)

    With sufficient Ach binding, the muscle fiber generates an action potential

    The muscle fiber action potential causes calcium release into the muscle fibers › Subsequently, the muscle fiber contracts
  31. A single alpha motor neuron’s cell body/dendrites are within
  32. voluntary movement
    • nvolve a great amount of input from various senses to determine feasibility and need to move
    • Once decision to move is reached by prefrontal cortex it starts a series of cortical (detailed on next slide) and subcortical signals that ultimately shape how the primary motor cortex is stimulated to generate movement via the subsequent stimulation of the requisite alpha motor neurons
  33. α-motor neurons
  34. One part of the basal ganglia system is called the substantia nigra
    its function is?
    The substantia nigra releases the neurotransmitter dopamine onto other parts of the basal ganglia system  Some of these neurons activate movement 7 The basal ganglia system and some of its connections  Some of these neurons inhibit movement
  35. Cause of Parkinson's disease
    Behavioral cause › No specific cause but drug abuse could possibly precipitate the disorder  Physiological cause › Abnormal loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in Substantia Nigra
  36. parkinson's diseae :Physiological cause
    › “normal” person loses about 2400 nigral neurons/ year › Need to lose 240,000 nigral neurons to develop Parkinson’s Disease  Roughly 60% of the dopamine secreting neurons of the substantia nigra › Progressive disorder  10-20 years from first symptoms appearing to endpoint
  37. Primary Behavioral Symptoms
    • 1. Limb rigidity (mimics arthritis): Increased muscle tone in flexor muscles… a. stooped posture (tuo bei)  b. shuffling gait (slow)c. mask-like facial expression
    • 2. Bradykinesia (slow)
    • 3tremor (vibrate)
    • 4Postural instability(tuobei)
  38. Parkinson's disease
    Almost no dopamine in the substantia nigra of Parkinson’s patients  Autopsies often reveal Lewy bodies (protein clumps) in the substantia nigra  Treated temporarily with L-dopa  Linked to about 10 different gene mutations  Deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus reduces symptoms, but effectiveness may decline over months or years
  39. Müller-Lyer Illusion
    This illusion is a result of how your primary visual cortex adapted to the environment after you were born• Our primary visual cortex being frequently stimulated with typical linear patterns would make the processing of linear patterns more efficient – The primary visual cortex reduces the total number of calculations/neurological processing needed to perceive linear stimulation by making assumptions about linear information» Under certain atypical conditions, these assumptions are incorrect
  40. Café Wall Illusion
    Explanation– Bipolar cells in the retina are sensitive to concentric circles of opposing photoreceptor stimulation– Some neurons in the LGN (Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the thalamus) are also sensitive to these concentric circles of ganglion cell input
  41. Hinton's “Lilac Chaser”
    Explanation– Fixing your eyes on the “X” results in your eyes not moving as much as they typically do move– Having a “fixed gaze” causes the same photoreceptors and other retinal neurons to be stimulated for some time (Specifically up to the point where the circle briefly disappears)• The constant stimulation “fatigues” the retinal neurons so that when the purple images disappears your retinal neurons briefly “see” the opposing color (green) even though there is no green image on the screen
  42. motion aftereffect (MAE)
    For example, if one looks at a waterfall for about a minute and then looks at the stationary rocks at the side of the waterfall, these rocks appear to be moving upwards slightly. The illusory upwards movement is the motion aftereffect. This particular motion aftereffect is also known as the waterfall illusion.
  43. Seeing is not perceiving and perception is a slave to attention
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Brain matters Final