1. Properties of Viruses
    • Nucleic acid can be double DNA, single DNA, Single RNA, or double RNA
    • Structure consist of protein shell (capsid) surrounding nucleic acid core 
    • Lack enzymes and most metabolic processes
    • Ultramicroscopic
  2. Virion
    Fully formed virus able to establish an infection
  3. What is the general structure of a virus
    • Virus particle.
    • a) Covering; capsid or envelope(not found in all viruses)
    • b)Central Core; Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or matrix proteins enzymes (not found in all viruses)
  4. All viruses have
    Capsids - Protein coats that enclose and protect their nucleic acid
  5. Capsomers
    • Construct capsid
    • Identical subunits that are made of proteins
  6. Nucleoscapsid
    The capsid paired with nucleic acid
  7. Envelope
    • Not found in all viruses 
    • External covering
    • Mostly in animal viruses
  8. Viruses not containing envelopes are called?
  9. When are envelopes acquired?
    When the virus leaves the host cell
  10. Spikes
    • Exposed proteins on the outside of the envelope.
    • Essential for attachment of the virus to the host cell
  11. Complex Viruses
    • AKA atypical viruses
    • Some bacteriophages(viruses) have a polyhedral nucelocapsid along with a helical talk and attachment fibers
  12. Poxviruses
    They lack a typical capsid and have an unusual shape
  13. Viral Genome
    • Either DNA or RNA but never both
    • Carries genes necessary to invade host cells and redirect cells activity to make new viruses
  14. Reverse transcriptase
    • Synthesis of DNA from RNA
    • AIDS virus
  15. Some viruses use what to help replicate?
    • Pre-formed enzymes 
    • Polymerases and replicases
  16. 6 phases of animal virus multiplication
    • Adsorption- Binding of virus to molecule on host cell
    • Penetration- Genome enters host cell
    • Uncoating- Viral nucleic acid is realeased from capisd
    • Synthesis- Viral compnents are produced
    • Assembly- New viral particals constructed 
    • Release- assembled viruses are released by budding(Exocytosis) or lysis.
  17. Cytopathic effects
    • Virus induced damage to cells
    • Changes in shape/size
    • Cell lysis 
    • Alter DNA
    • Transform to cancerous cells 
    • Nuclear inclusions
  18. Viral infection of human liver cells
    Hepatitis B
  19. Viral infection of intestinal and nerve cells
  20. Viral infection to various cells of many mammals
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